World Meteorological Organization (WMO)
Organisation météorologique mondiale (OMM)
Organización Meteorológica Mundial (OMM)
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Established 11 Oct 1947, Washington DC (USA), on signature of a convention on behalf of 42 states at conclusion of 12th Conference of Directors of International Meteorological Organization (IMO), an international nongovernmental organization founded in 1873. IMO continued to function on an interim basis, pending formal establishment of the World Meteorological Organization which took place, 23 Mar 1950, on coming into force of the IMO Convention. Resources and obligations of IMO were transferred to WMO, 4 Apr 1951, at 1st Congress. Agreement between the United Nations and WMO approved, 20 Dec 1951, by UN General Assembly, established WMO as a specialized agency of United Nations (UN) within United Nations System, linked to United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). Statutes registered in 'UNTS 1/998' and 'ICAO 840'.
Facilitate worldwide cooperation in the establishment of networks of stations for the making of meteorological observations as well as hydrological and other geophysical observations related to meteorology; promote the establishment and maintenance of centres charged with the provision of meteorological and related services; promote the establishment and maintenance of systems for rapid exchange of meteorological and related information; promote standardization of meteorological and related observations and ensure the uniform publication of observations and statistics; further the application of meteorology to aviation, shipping, water problems, agriculture and other human activities; promote activities in operational hydrology and further close cooperation amongst national meteorological and hydrological services; encourage research and training in meteorology and, as appropriate, in related fields and assist in coordinating the international aspects of such research and training.Available with paid subscription only.
Adopts technical regulations and makes recommendations to members with a view to improving and coordinating activities in meteorology and operational hydrology on a worldwide basis. Adopts transmission codes and organizes collection and dissemination of data on regional and continental bases. Supports national efforts on mitigation and reduction of natural disasters through timely and accurate warnings and forecasts. Coordinates and regulates the application of meteorology to aviation, shipping, agriculture, water resource development and other aspects of economic life. With UNEP, studies the economic and social impact of natural and man-made climate change. Contributes to: developing the use of meteorological information and forecasts for protection of plants and crops against insect pests and plant diseases and participates in international locust control activities; research on the upper atmosphere; implementation and operation of an international early notification system of nuclear accidents, especially through Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident, administered by World Weather Watch in conjunction with IAEA, and the related Convention on Assistance in the Case of Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. Participates in international activities relating to oceans, including through Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). Plays an active part in UNDP's work for economic development of developing countries, contributing to the establishment and development of National Meteorological and Hydrological Services and the training of meteorologists and specialists in all branches of weather science; delegates experts to study local conditions and seek the most suitable means of solving the particular problems of the countries in question.
WMO Applications of Meteorology Programme (AMP) facilitates the application of meteorology, in all countries, for the attainment of national social, economic and cultural goals and sustainable development. It includes: 'Public Weather Services Programme'; 'Agricultural Meteorology Programme'; 'Aeronautical Meteorology Programme'; 'Marine Meteorology and Related Oceanographic Activities Programme'.
WMO Atmospheric Research and Environment Programme (AREP) coordinates and stimulates research on the composition of the atmosphere, the physics and chemistry of clouds, weather modification techniques, tropical meteorology processes and weather forecasting, focusing on extreme weather events and socio-economic impacts. It also coordinates the global monitoring of greenhouse gases, the ozone layer, major atmospheric pollutants and urban environment and meteorological studies. It includes: 'Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW)', set up June 1989; 'World Weather Research Programme'; 'THORPEX'; 'Tropical Meteorology Research Programme'; 'Physics of Clouds and Weather Modification Research Programme'. Scientific institutions include:
• WMO World Data Centre for Aerosol Optical Depth, Asheville NC (activities currently suspended).
WMO Education and Training Programme assists members, in particular in developing countries and countries with economies in transition, in obtaining specially educated and trained to internationally agreed standards in order to carry out the activities and operations of National Meteorological and Hydrological Services required at the global, regional and national levels for the effective provision of meteorological and hydrological services in support of sustainable development of member countries.
Global Climate Observing System (GCOS), established in 1992, aims to ensure that the observations and information needed to address climate-related issues are obtained and made available to all potential users. It is co-sponsored by WMO, IOC, UNEP and ICSU. It is intended to be a long-term, user-driven operational system capable of providing the comprehensive observations required for monitoring the climate system, for detecting and attributing climate change, for assessing the impacts of climate variability and change, and for supporting research toward improved understanding, modelling and prediction of the climate system. It builds upon, and works in partnership with, other existing and developing observing systems.
WMO Hydrology and Water Resources Programme (HWRP) provides for the collection and analysis of hydrological data as a basis for assessing and managing freshwater resources, for example, for human consumption, sanitation, irrigation, hydropower production and water transport, and for flood forecasting system and the prediction of droughts. It includes: Programme on Basic Systems; Programme on Applications and Forecasting; Programme on Sustainable Development of Water Resources; Programme on Capacity Building in Hydrology and Water Resources; Programme on Water-related Issues; Associated Programme on Flood Management; World Hydrological Cycle Observing System; Hydrological Operational Multipurpose System.
WMO Disaster Risk Reduction Programme (DRR) develops an organization-wide coordinating framework to enhance further WMO's contributions to the natural disaster risk reduction activities at the international, regional and national levels. DPM strategy enhances the way WMO and the National Meteorological and Hydrological Services, in partnership with other key organizations, can contribute to disaster reduction around the world. Through a phased implementation plan based on a multi-hazard framework, WMO - through a coordinated and systematic approach - addresses the needs and gaps in its core areas in different regions in the world.
'Regional Programme (RP)' cuts across and forms part of the WMO scientific and technical programmes. Main purpose is to give the required support to the regional associations. It comprises 2 main components - initial support to the Regional Programme and Regional Activities, which provide the necessary mechanism to ensure that the Programme's purposes are met, including assistance to the presidents of regional associations, support to sessions of regional associations and their working groups, assistance to members, particularly developing countries, for strengthening their National Meteorological and Hydrological Services to enable them to participate fully in and reap the maximum benefits from WMO Programmes. Assistance to members, which also aims at bridging the gap between National Meteorological and Hydrological Services, is given through regional events including regional technical conferences, training seminars, workshops as well as experts implementation coordination meetings.
WMO Resource Mobilization Office (RMO) ensures, through collaborative efforts of members, for their mutual benefit, the enhancement and development of the capabilities of the National Meteorological and Hydrological Services so they can contribute to, and participate efficiently in, the implementation of WMO Programmes, for the benefit of the global community and in support of national socio-economic development activities.
World Climate Programme, established in 1979, provides an authoritative international scientific voice on climate and climate change and assists countries in the application of climate information and knowledge to national sustainable development. It embraces the study and monitoring of the entire climate system and, as such, makes major contributions to the implementation of most WMO strategies. It consists of: Agricultural and Meteorology Programme; World Climate Data and Monitoring Programme; World Climate Applications and Services Programme, including the Climate Information and Prediction Services (CLIPS).
World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) (together with ICSU and IOC), is the research component of WCP. It aims to develop the fundamental understanding of the physical climate system and climate processes needed to determine to what extent climate can be predicted and to quantify human influence on climate.
WMO Space Programme coordinates environmental satellite matters and activities throughout all the WMO Programmes and gives guidance to WMO and other multi-sponsored programmes on the potential of remote-sensing techniques in meteorology, hydrology, related disciplines and their applications.
World Weather Watch (WWW), established 1968, is the backbone of the WMO programmes. It combines observing systems, telecommunication facilities and data-processing and forecasting centres - operated by members - to make available meteorological and related geophysical information needed to provide efficient services in all countries. It includes: Global Observing System (GOS); Global Telecommunication System (GTS); Global Data-processing and Forecasting System (GDPFS); Tropical Cyclone Programme; Antarctic Activities; Emergency Response Activities; Operational Information Service; WWW Data Management; WMO Information System.
WMO Integrated Global Observing System (WIGOS) - Provides a single focus for the operational and management functions of all WMO observing systems.
Joint activities/programmes with other intergovernmental and international nongovernmental organizations include:
• Joint WMO-IOC Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM), established in summer 1999 on merger of Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) with WMO Commission for Marine Meteorology;
• World Hydrological Cycle Observing System (WHYCOS) (still at the planning stage).
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Relations with Inter-Governmental Organizations
Relations with 124 inter-governmental organizations.
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Relations with Non-Governmental Organizations
Relations with 101 non-governmental organizations.
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Information ServicesAvailable with paid subscription only.
Members in 192 countries
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- International Relations
- United Nations
UN Sustainable Development Goals **
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