European Commission (EC)

Commission européenne
Comisión Europea
Europäische Kommission
Comissão Européia
Commissione Europea
Europese Commissie
Europeiska Kommissionen
Euroopan Komissio
Evropaiki Epitropi
An Coimisiún Eorpach
Evropska Komise
Európska Komisia
Európai Bizottsag
Komisja Europejska
Evropska Komisija
Euroopa Komisjon
Eiropas Komisija
Europos Komisija
Ill-Kummissjoni Ewropea
Europska Komisija
Comisia Europeana

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25 Aug 1952, with the name 'High Authority', as an executive body of H-XD0663 - European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) created under the T-XT5133 - Treaty Establishing the European Coal and Steel Community (Treaty of Paris). The twin treaties - Treaty Establishing the European Economic Community (Treaty of Rome) and T-XT5766 - Treaty Establishing the European Atomic Energy Community (Treaty of Rome) or 'Rome Treaties', in force from 1 Jan 1958 establishing the European Economic Community (EEC), subsequently becoming H-XD0665 - European Community, and the H-XD0666 - European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) - also set up Commissions for each of the new Communities. The present Commission came into existence as a single entity, with full legal title Commission of the European Communities (CEC) -- Commission des Communautés européennes (CCE) -- Comisión de las Comunidades Europeas -- Kommission der Europäischen Gemeinschaften -- Comissão das Comunidades Européias -- Commissione delle Comunità Europee -- Commissie van de Europese Gemeenschappen -- Kommissionen for de Europaeiske Faellesskaber -- Epitropi ton Evropaikon Kinotiton, Jul 1967, when the 'Merger' Treaty of 8 Apr 1965 came into force, since when it functioned a single organ common to the three, and then two, European Communities. The ECSC ceased to exist in Jul 2002, following expiration of the Paris Treaty when European Community became responsible for the steel sector.

The T-XT8633 - Single European Act (SEA) was signed Feb 1986, and ratified by member parliaments by 31 Mar 1987. It came into force 1 Jul 1987, amending and complementing the Paris and Rome Treaties. As well as covering social, economic and monetary cooperation and measures to make the Community more effective and democratic, it treated the institutionalization of foreign policy cooperation within U-XF3678 - European Political Cooperation (EPC).

The T-XT9113 - Treaty on European Union (Maastricht Treaty) was signed on 7 Feb 1992; the Commission's current title was formally adopted by the Council of Ministers on 9 Nov 1993. The Maastricht Treaty expanded the former concept of the H-XF0662 - European Communities (EC) by making it the first "pillar" of the F-XF2147 - European Union (EU) and also replaced the title of the 'Council of the European Communities' by 'Council of the European Union' and of the 'European Economic Community (EEC)' of the Treaty of Rome by the 'European Community', which title may be seen as officially referring to the old EEC only. Under the Treaty, Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP / PESC), deriving from EPC, became the second "pillar" of the Union; while Cooperation in the Field of Justice and Home Affairs (CJHA) (interior policy) is the third "pillar".

The Maastricht Treaty confirmed the powers of the Commission conferred upon it by previous treaties and acts. It is to be called upon for advice by the Council when considering the request on any country for membership of the European Union.

The European Union was recognized as a legal entity by T-XT9706 - Treaty of Amsterdam, the successor to the Maastricht treaty, signed 2 Oct 1997. Within the single institutional framework of the Union, the Commission is responsible, with the Council, for ensuring consistency. Its composition and mode of operation were revised by the T-XT0128 - Nice Treaty, signed 26 Feb 2001, Nice, which came into effect 1 Feb 2003. Further revisions, especially regarding enlargement, were formalized in the Treaty of Accession, also known as Treaty of Athens, signed 16 Apr 2003, Athens, which entered into force with the accession of 10 new member states on 1 May 2004.

The T-XT2073 - Treaty of Lisbon, which came into force 1 Dec 2009, gave further power to the European Union and officially succeeded the European Community, changing the title of the Treaty of Rome to T-XT5765 - Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU).


As the European Union's executive body: propose legislation which is then adopted by co-legislators, the European Parliament and the Council of Ministers; enforce European law - where necessary with the help of the Court of Justice of the EU; set objectives and priorities for action, outlined yearly in the Commission Work Programme and work towards delivering them; manage and implement EU policies and the budget; represent the Union outside Europe.


2024-06-11 | Brussels, Belgium – EUSEW : EU Sustainable Energy Week

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The term 'Commission' refers to both the College of Commissioners as well as the institution itself. College of Commissioners includes one member of each Member State, and including President, First Vice-President, High Representative of the Union for Foreign Policy and Security Policy, and 5 Vice-Presidents. The Commission works according to the principle of collective responsibility with Commissioners - serving 5-year terms - having no individual decision-making powers. President is elected by F-XF0667 - European Parliament (EP) with Commission as a whole needing the Parliament's consent.

Departments/Directorates-General (DGs), each headed by a Director-General:

  • Agriculture and Rural Development (AGRI);
  • Budget (BUDG);
  • Climate Action (CLIMA);
  • Communication (COMM);
  • Communications Networks, Content and Technology (CONNECT);
  • Competition (COMP);
  • Economic and Financial Affairs (ECFIN);
  • Education and Culture (EAC);
  • Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion (EMPL);
  • Energy (ENER);
  • Environment (ENV);
  • E-XE7358 - Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat);
  • Financial Stability, Financial Services and Capital Markets Union (FISMA);
  • Health and Food Safety (SANTE);
  • Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection;
  • Human Resources and Security (HR);
  • Informatics (DIGIT);
  • Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs (GROW);
  • International Cooperation and Development (DEVCO);
  • Interpretation (SCIC);
  • E-XE5547 - Joint Research Centre (JRC);
  • Justice and Consumers (JUST);
  • Maritime Affairs and Fisheries (MARE);
  • Migration and Home Affairs (HOME);
  • Mobility and Transport (MOVE);
  • Neighbourhood and Enlargement Negotiations (NEAR);
  • Regional and Urban Policy (REGIO);
  • Research and Innovation (RTD);
  • Secretariat-General (SG);
  • Service for Foreign Policy Instruments (FPI);
  • Taxation and Customs Union (TAXUD);
  • Trade (TRADE);
  • Translation (DGT).


  • Central Library;
  • F-XF5674 - European Anti-Fraud Office;
  • European Commission Data Protection Officer;
  • European Political Strategy Centre (EPSC);
  • Historical Archives;
  • Infrastructure and Logistics - Brussels (OIB);
  • Infrastructure and Logistics - Luxembourg (OIL);
  • Internal Audit Service (IAS);
  • Legal Service (SJ);
  • Office for Administration and Payment of Individual Entitlements (PMO);
  • Publications Office (OP).


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Relations with Inter-Governmental Organizations

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Relations with Non-Governmental Organizations

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Type I Classification

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Type II Classification

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Subjects *

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UN Sustainable Development Goals **

GOAL 16: Peace and Justice Strong Institutions



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* Subject classification is derived from the organization names and aims.
** UN SDGs are linked to the subject classification.

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