United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED)

Conférence des Nations Unies sur l'environnement et le développement (CNUED)

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within the framework of United Nations (UN), on decision of UN General Assembly, Dec 1989. Also referred to as Earth Summit and as Rio Conference, the Conference taking place 3-14 June 1992, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). The major institution set up as a result of the Rio Conference is United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD).


Lay the foundation for a global partnership between developing countries and more industrialized countries, based on mutual need and common interests, to ensure the future of the planet. Issues addressed: protection of the atmosphere - climate change, depletion of the ozone layer, transboundary air pollution; protection of land resources - combating deforestation, soil loss, desertification, drought; conservation of biological diversity; protection of freshwater resources; protection of oceans, seas and coastal areas and rational use and development of their living resources; environmentally sound management of biotechnology and hazardous wastes - including toxic chemicals; prevention of illegal traffic in toxic products and wastes; improving quality of life and human health; improving living conditions and working conditions of the poor by eradicating poverty and stopping environmental degradation.

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Individual governments produced national reports. Work programme examined 4 major linkages: poverty and environment; growth patterns, consumption standards, demographic pressures and environment; international economic problems such as debt, deterioration in terms of trade, reverse resource flows and environmental degradation; policy instruments and institutions and sustainable development. Other linkage contributions include studies carried out by International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA). Meeting, Dec 1991, Paris (France), of ELC International (ELCI), to produce 'Brazil Document' giving an NGO perspective on environment and development. Voluntary fund helped least developed countries to participate. In total, 182 governments were represented, with over 17,000 individuals participating in the related 'NGO Forum'. Results: series of agreements among governments for cooperation on development and environment issues; political commitment to these agreements; new pathways for communication and cooperation among governments, intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations; increased public awareness. Adopted 3 major texts: (1) Rio Declaration enunciating the right to development, and the principles that the polluter pays for the cost of pollution and that scientific uncertainty is no excuse for postponing measures to prevent environmental degradation; (2) Global Action Plan for Environment and Development in the 21st Century (Agenda 21), a comprehensive action programme integrating development and environmental issues (accepted by 182 governments and currently signed by 130); (3) Forestry principles (non-binding) as a basis for a future treaty. Two treaties were opened for signature and signed by 154 nations: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC); Convention on Biological Diversity (Biodiversity convention).


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Relations with Inter-Governmental Organizations

Relations with 16 inter-governmental organizations.
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Relations with Non-Governmental Organizations

Relations with 47 non-governmental organizations.
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Information Services

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Members in 0 countries
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Type I Classification

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Type II Classification

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Subjects *

  • Fundamental Sciences
    • Inorganic Chemical Compounds
  • Meteorology
    • Meteorology
  • Climatology
    • Climate
    • Arid Zones
  • Oceanography
    • Oceanography
    • Seas
  • Hydrology
    • Water
  • Geology
    • Soil
    • Land and Coastal Forms
  • Resources
    • Resources
  • Biosciences
    • Biotechnology
  • Geography
    • Land Type/Use
  • Society
    • Disadvantaged
  • Social Activity
    • Employment Conditions
  • Amenities
    • Living Conditions
  • Societal Problems
    • Protection
    • Hazards
    • Destruction
    • Pollution
    • Waste
  • Government
    • Frontiers
  • Environment
    • Environment
  • International Relations
    • United Nations
  • Development
    • Development
  • Policy-making
    • Future
  • Harmony
    • Diversity

UN Sustainable Development Goals **

GOAL 1: No PovertyGOAL 3: Good Health and Well-beingGOAL 6: Clean Water and SanitationGOAL 7: Affordable and Clean EnergyGOAL 8: Decent Work and Economic GrowthGOAL 10: Reduced InequalityGOAL 11: Sustainable Cities and CommunitiesGOAL 13: Climate ActionGOAL 14: Life Below WaterGOAL 15: Life on Land



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* Subject classification is derived from the organization names and aims.
** UN SDGs are linked to the subject classification.

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