Encyclopedia of World Problems - Archived Information

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Sustainable Development Issues: Clustered by Principal Subject (Environment)

Derived from international declarations:

Agenda 21 (1992), Brundtland Report and various NGO and government declarations (see checklist).

Columns coded in relation to Figure 1. In 6 parts:
[P=Population | W=Well-being | L=Learning | T=Trade | E=Environment (below)| R=Regulation ]

The purpose of this coding was to explore configuration of the implicit strategic dilemmas as a global structure (see commentary) and presented as Figures 3a and 3b. In 1999, further experiments, using virtual reality, are underway to configure such issues in three dimensions. The coding procedure is described elsewhere.

  P W L T E R   Issue name Document
        Carrying capacity of earth / sustainability thresholds  Doc27 
    Conserve life-support systems, vitality and diversity  Doc27 
        Access to satisfactory data on land classification and land use  A21/11 
    Enhancing/overexploitation of non-renewable resources  BR 
        Landscape conservation  Doc36 
    Ecosystem degradation and stress  BR 
        Desertification / Drought  A21/12 
        Waterlogging / salinization  Doc18 
        Mountain/hill-area development A21/13 
        Watershed destruction / development  BR 
        Diversification of mountain economies  A21/13 
        Marginal land use  A21/10 
        Land degradation/Soil erosion  BR 
        Overstocking / Over-grazing  Doc19 
        Over-intensive / irrigated / monoculture agriculture  Doc19 
        Deforestation A21/11 
        Over-cutting  BR 
        Depletion of fuel-wood  BR 
        Forest rehabilitation, afforestation, reforestation  A21/11 
        Alternatives to shifting cultivation  A21/11 
        Promote means that gain full economic values of forests  A21/11 
        Conservation of tropical and old growth forests  Doc9 
        Sustainable harvesting methods for forest  A21/11 
    Water resource shortages/degradation  A21/18 
        Reuse of waste water  Doc27 
        Proposal: UN World Water Day  A21/18 
        Groundwater protection  A21/18 
        Water pollution surveillance and control  A21/18 
        Efficient and equitable allocation  A21/18 
        Water resources conservation and quality protection and  A21/18 
        Local capacity-building and public participation  A21/18 
        Marine ecosystems  Doc27 
        Global system of coastal and marine protected areas  Doc27 
        Overfishing / Whaling  BR 
        Ban tangle net and drift net fishing  Doc9 
        Liaison on seabed mining  Doc19 
        Degradation from land-based activities  A21/17 
        Guaranteed sustainable yields  A21/17 
        Exclusive economic zones  A21/17 
        Fragile ecosystems A21/12 & 13 
        Wetlands, mangroves, corals  Doc18 
        Coastal zones/estuaries  Doc4 
        Environmental consequences of armed conflict  BR 
        Environmental damage from tourism  Doc30 
        Destruction of natural barriers   
        Preservation of bioregional diversity  Doc3 
    Biodiversity / Genetic erosion  BR 
    Conservation of genetic resources  Doc3 
        Vavilov centres of plant genetic diversity  Doc3 
        International and regional cooperation and coordination  A21/15 
        Global sufficiency of protected areas / reserves  Doc13 
        Species extinction  BR 
        Unnatural restriction of animal ranges  Doc27 
        Destruction of wildlife habitats  Doc27 
        Endangered species protection  Doc13 
        Environmental pollution (waste) management  BR 
        Protecting the atmosphere A21/9 
        Urban-industrial air pollution / acid rain  BR 
  Greenhouse gases / climate change / global warming  BR 
        Reverse dependence on fossil fuels  Doc30 
        Depletion of stratospheric ozone  BR 
      Phase out organo-halogens  Doc30 
        Create global climate observing system  Doc22 
        Leapfrog developing countries to benign technology  Doc22 
    Minimize the generation of wastes  A21/5 
        Hazardous/toxic chemicals/wastes A21/19-20 
        Illicit traffic in toxic and hazardous products  Doc19 
        Assessment of chemical risks  A21/19 
        Radioactive wastes A21/22 
        Sewage  A21/21 
        Minimize waste / mazimize reuse and recyling  A21/21 
        Extending waste service coverage  A21/21 
        Solid wastes and landfill A21/21 
        Environmentally sound waste disposal and treatment  A21/21 
        Chemical pollution of soil, water, etc  BR 
        Marine pollution (and subsea waste disposal)  BR 
        Pollution of orbital space and Antarctica  BR 
    Sustainable human settlements  A21/6 
        Recognise reciprocity between settlement and hinterland  Doc25 
        Reduce consumption of materials and energy  Doc25 
        Uncontrolled physical expansion of cities  BR 
        Illegal settlements  BR 
        Urban decay (sanitation, water supplies, shelter)  BR 
        Sustainable urban transport policy  Doc27 
        Foot and bicycle versus automobile  Doc25 
        Ecological city [re]building programmes  Doc25 
        "Green, clean and efficient"  Doc27 
        "Barefoot architects/builders"  Doc24 
        Move information not people  Doc27 
        Small urban improvement works by NGOs  Doc36 
        Waste production, recycling and disposal  Doc27 
        Urban air pollution  A21/6 
        Urban noise pollution  A21/6 
        Indoor air pollution  A21/6 
        Managing settlements in disaster-prone areas  A21/7 
        "Healthy Cities" movement  Doc27