Encyclopedia of World Problems - Archived Information

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Sustainable Development Issues: Clustered by Principal Subject (Trade)

Derived from international declarations:

Agenda 21 (1992), Brundtland Report and various NGO and government declarations (see checklist).

Columns coded in relation to Figure 1. In 6 parts:
[P=Population | W=Well-being | L=Learning (below)| T=Trade | E=Environment | R=Regulation ]

The purpose of this coding was to explore configuration of the implicit strategic dilemmas as a global structure (see commentary) and presented as Figures 3a and 3b. In 1999, further experiments, using virtual reality, are underway to configure such issues in three dimensions. The coding procedure is described elsewhere

  P W L T E R   Issue name Document
        Trade liberalization A21/2
        Developing an environment/trade and development agenda  A21/2 
        Make trade and environment mutually supportive  A21/2 
        "Fair trade" not "free trade"  Doc26 
        Deregulation  Doc2 
    Protectionism / Market access  BR 
        Tariff barriers  Doc5 
        Deteriorating terms of trade  BR 
        Restrictive trade practices  Doc5 
        Inappropriate commodity prices  Doc40 
        Improve international cooperation in commodity trade  A21/2 
        Instability of trade/production   
        Dependency on trade  BR 
        Diversification of trade cf one main export commodity  A21/2 
    Revival of economic growth / Economic growth  BR 
        Develop new concepts of sustainable economic growth  A21/3 
    Improving quality of growth / Unbalanced economic growth  BR 
        Negative environmental impacts of industrial activity  BR 
        Pollution-intensive production costs  BR 
        Inappropriate industrialization  BR 
        Diversified production systems  A21/13 
        Technology reorientation (uncontrolled use)  BR 
        Distribution / concentration of economic activity  Doc2 
    Biotechnology management  BR 
        Legal protection of nations' biological rights  Doc24 
        Concessional access for developing countries  Doc24 
    Underdevelopment / UNDP Human Development Index  Doc27 
        "People-centred development"  Doc12 
        Redefine "prosperity"  Doc13 
        Encourage entrepreneurial/investment initiatives  Doc2 
        Capacity building in developing countries BR 
        Enhancement of technological capacity  BR 
        Underfunding of [agricultural] training programmes  Doc3 
        National service schemes versus "brain-drain"  Doc2 
        Use of local capabilities/resources before imports  Doc34 
        Access to markets in the North  Doc24 
        Environmentally sound technology transfer A21/34 
        Public domain and subsidised appropriate technology  Doc5 
        Accessed through information databases/networks  Doc5 
        Programmes of technical cooperation and assistance  A21/34 
        Tied to compliance with international conventions  Doc5 
        Collaborative arrangements and partnerships  A21/34 
        Environmentally [safe and] sound technology  A21/34 
        Sustainable agricultural/rural development A21/14 
        Food spoilage/wastage  Doc2 
        Unproductive use of resources  Doc1 
        Inappropriate use and pricing of agrochemicals  BR 
        Improper pricing / non-cost of environmental externalities  Doc2 
        Unstable markets / fluctuating prices  Doc2 
        Fluctuating availability/shortages  BR 
        Over-subsidized production and agricultural inputs  BR 
        Export of surpluses  BR 
        Land resource and rehabilitiation data banks  A21/14 
        Appropriate agro-ecological zoning and landuse  A21/14 
        Improve training for rural servicing / extension workers  A21/14 
        Promote integrated pest management  Doc27 
        Food production/security  BR 
        Role of small primary producers  A21/32 
        Strengthen role of farmers  A21/32 
        Unproductive subsistence agriculture   
        Cooperatives of small scale farmers  Doc2 
        Farming households and technologies  A21/14 
        Permaculture / agroforestry  Doc30 
        Small-scall agro-processing techniques  A21/14 
        Biological pest control methods  Doc27 
        Growing illegal drugs  Doc36 
        Integrated farm management technologies  A21/14 
        Decentralization policies for rural development  A21/14 
        Farmers' Rights to plant and animal genetic resources  A21/14 
        Neglect of minor crops/varieties and animal breeds  Doc3 
        Energy and resources  BR 
        Inefficient use of resources / Energy conservation  BR 
        Decentralise energy supplies  Doc30 
        Moratorium and phase-out nuclear plants  Doc33 
        New and renewable energy sources and technologies  Doc5 
        Market failure to price and to allocate scare resources  Doc2 
        Underground economy / Black markets / Illegal trading   
        Inappropriate incentive systems  BR 
        Business/Industry community role A21/30 
        Responsible entrepreneurship  A21/30 
        Unethical commercial practices   
        Socially responsible capital investment  Doc2 
        Use full social and environmental costs  Doc27 
        Openness / Dialogue with local community  Doc5 
        Revised accounting standards / environmental auditing  Doc2 
        [In]adequate industry standards/practices/compliance  Doc5 
        Public - private sector partnerships  Doc2 
        Multinational/transnational corporations  Doc2 
        Restrictive patents and proprietary rights BR 
        Promote cleaner production  A21/30 
        Dangerous products  A21/19 
        Phase-out "black listed" toxics and hazardous substances  Doc30 
        "Cradle to grave" waste management  Doc27 
        Equipment/Servicing inadequacy/unreliability   
        Inadequate standardization   
        Access to spare parts/maintenance   
        Product planned obsolescence   
        Inappropriate design   
        Socio/ecological product labelling  Doc30