Global Civil Society & the UN Sustainable Development Goals

Goal 14: Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources

Life Below Water


The world’s oceans – their temperature, chemistry, currents and life – drive global systems that make the Earth habitable for humankind. Our rainwater, drinking water, weather, climate, coastlines, much of our food, and even the oxygen in the air we breathe, are all ultimately provided and regulated by the sea. Throughout history, oceans and seas have been vital conduits for trade and transportation.

Careful management of this essential global resource is a key feature of a sustainable future. However, at the current time, there is a continuous deterioration of coastal waters owing to pollution and ocean acidification is having an adversarial effect on the functioning of ecosystems and biodiversity. This is also negatively impacting small scale fisheries.

Marine protected areas need to be effectively managed and well-resourced and regulations need to be put in place to reduce overfishing, marine pollution and ocean acidification.

Name Acronym Founded City HQ Country/Territory HQ Type I Type II Type III

Convention Concerning Seafarers' Welfare at Sea and in Port

1987 Geneva Switzerland T g ILO Bodies, Treaties, IGOs

Convention Concerning the Compulsory Medical Examination of Children and Young Persons Employed at Sea

1921 Geneva Switzerland T g ILO Bodies, Treaties, IGOs

Convention Concerning the Medical Examination of Fishermen

1959 Geneva Switzerland T g ILO Bodies, Treaties, IGOs

Convention Concerning the Minimum Age for Admission to Employment as Fishermen

1959 Geneva Switzerland T g ILO Bodies, Treaties, IGOs

Convention Fixing the Minimum Age for Admission of Children to Employment at Sea, 1920

1920 Geneva Switzerland T g ILO Bodies, Treaties, IGOs

Convention Fixing the Minimum Age for the Admission of Children to Employment at Sea, 1936

1936 Geneva Switzerland T g ILO Bodies, Treaties, IGOs

Convention for Cooperation in the Protection and Development of the Marine and Coastal Environment of the West and Central African Region

Abidjan convention 1981 Abidjan Côte d'Ivoire T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention for Cooperation in the Protection and Sustainable Development of the Marine and Coastal Environment of the Northeast Pacific

NEP 2002 Nairobi Kenya T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention for the Conservation and Management of the Vicuña

1979 T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention for the Conservation of Anadromous Stocks in the North Pacific Ocean

1992 T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals

CCAS 1972 T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention for the Conservation of Salmon in the North Atlantic Ocean

1982 T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention for the Conservation of Southern Bluefin Tuna

1993 T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention for the Conservation of the Biodiversity and the Protection of Wilderness Areas in Central America

1992 T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention for the Conservation of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden Environment

Jeddah convention 1982 Jeddah Saudi Arabia T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention for the Improvement of Sea Communications

1912 T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention for the Maintenance, Preservation and Reestablishment of Peace

1936 T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention for the Preservation of Wild Animals, Birds and Fish in Africa

1900 T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping from Ships and Aircraft

Oslo Convention 1972 T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention for the Prohibition of Fishing with Long Driftnets in the South Pacific

1989 T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention for the Protection and Development of the Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean Region

Cartagena Convention 1983 Kingston Jamaica T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment and Coastal Area of the Southeast Pacific

Lima Convention 1981 Guayaquil Ecuador T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment and the Coastal Region of the Mediterranean

Barcelona Convention 1976 Athens Greece T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention for the Protection of the Natural Resources and Environment of the South Pacific Region

SPREP convention 1986 Apia Samoa T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention for the Protection on the Marine Environment for the North-East Atlantic

OSPAR Convention 1992 London UK T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention for the Protection, Management and Development of the Marine and Coastal Environment of the Eastern African Region

Nairobi Convention 1985 Mahé Seychelles T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention for the Regulation of the Meshes of Fishing Nets and the Size Limits of Fish

1946 T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention for the Regulation of Whaling

1931 T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention for the Unification of the Rules Relating to Collisions at Sea

1910 T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters

Århus Convention 1998 Geneva Switzerland T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention on Biological Diversity

Biodiversity convention 1992 Montréal QC Canada T g United Nations Bodies, Treaties, European Union Bodies, IGOs

Convention on Civil Liability for Damage Resulting from Activities Dangerous to the Environment

1993 Strasbourg France T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage Resulting from Exploration for and Exploitation of Seabed Mineral Resources

1977 T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention on Conservation of Nature in the South Pacific

1976 T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention on Cooperation for the Protection and Sustainable Use of the Danube River

1994 T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment

1990 T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context

Espoo Convention 1991 T g United Nations Bodies, Treaties, IGOs

Convention on fisheries and the conservation of living marine resources in the Black Sea

1993 J gp Treaties, IGOs

Convention on Fishing and Conservation of the Living Resources in the Baltic Sea and the Belts

Gdansk convention 1973 T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention on Fishing and Conservation of the Living Resources of the High Seas

1958 T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention on Future Multilateral Cooperation in North-East Atlantic Fisheries, 1980

1980 T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention on Future Multilateral Cooperation in the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries, 1978

NAFO 1978 T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora

CITES 1973 Geneva Switzerland T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention on Nature Protection and Wild Life Preservation in the Western Hemisphere

1940 T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention on Protection of the Environment through Criminal Law

1998 Strasbourg France T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention on the Conduct of Fishing Operations in the North Atlantic

1967 T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention on the Conservation and Management of Fishery Resources in the South-East Atlantic Ocean

2001 T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention on the Conservation and Management of High Seas Fishery Resources in the South Pacific Ocean

2009 T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention on the Conservation and Management of Highly Migratory Fish Stocks in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean

Pacific tuna convention 2000 T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention on the Conservation and Management of Pollock in the Central Bering Sea

1994 T g Treaties, IGOs

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