Global Civil Society & the UN Sustainable Development Goals

Goal 15: Sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, halt and reverse land degradation, halt biodiversity loss

Life on Land


Forests cover 30.7 per cent of the Earth’s surface and, in addition to providing food security and shelter, they are key to combating climate change, protecting biodiversity and the homes of the indigenous population. By protecting forests, we will also be able to strengthen natural resource management and increase land productivity.

At the current time, thirteen million hectares of forests are being lost every year while the persistent degradation of drylands has led to the desertification of 3.6 billion hectares. Even though up to 15% of land is currently under protection, biodiversity is still at risk. Deforestation and desertification – caused by human activities and climate change – pose major challenges to sustainable development and have affected the lives and livelihoods of millions of people in the fight against poverty.

Efforts are being made to manage forests and combat desertification. There are two international agreements being implemented currently that promote the use of resources in an equitable way. Financial investments in support of biodiversity are also being provided.

Name Acronym Founded City HQ Country/Territory HQ Type I Type II Type III

Pro Regenwald

1988 Munich Germany G

PRO SILVA

1989 Aberystwyth UK D

Pro-Natura International

1986 Paris France F

Proact International

Usti nad Labem Czech Rep N

Probe International

Toronto ON Canada G

Program on Forests

PROFOR 1997 Washington DC USA F

Programme for the Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna

CAFF 1991 Akureyri Iceland E gy International Federations, IGOs

Programme on Man and the Biosphere

MAB 1971 Paris France F g UNESCO Bodies, IGOs

Project AWARE Foundation

1992 Rancho Santa Margarita CA USA G f Foundations

Project Survival Pacific

PSP Carlton Australia G

PROLINNOVA

1999 Amsterdam Netherlands E

Protection mondiale des animaux de ferme

PMAF 1994 Metz France G

Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment

PAME 1993 Akureyri Iceland E g IGOs

ProTerra Foundation

2013 Bilthoven Netherlands F f Foundations

Protocol Agreement on the Conservation of Common Natural Resources

1982 T g Treaties, IGOs

Protocol Amending the Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution from Land-based Sources, Kuwait

1990 Safat Kuwait T g Treaties, IGOs

Protocol Amending the Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution from Land-based Sources, Paris

1986 T g Treaties, IGOs

Protocol Amending the International Convention for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas, 1984

1984 Rome Italy T g Treaties, IGOs

Protocol Amending the International Convention for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas, 1992

1992 Rome Italy T g Treaties, IGOs

Protocol Concerning Mediterranean Specially Protected Areas

1982 T g Treaties, IGOs

Protocol Concerning Pollution from Land-based Sources and Activities

1999 Kingston Jamaica T g Treaties, IGOs

Protocol Concerning Protected Areas and Wild Fauna and Flora in the Eastern African Region

1985 Mahé Seychelles T g Treaties, IGOs

Protocol Concerning Specially Protected Areas and Biological Diversity in the Mediterranean

Barcelona protocol 1995 Athens Greece T g Treaties, IGOs

Protocol Concerning Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife to the Convention for the Protection and Development of the Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean Region

1990 Kingston Jamaica T g Treaties, IGOs

Protocol for the Conservation and Management of Protected Marine and Coastal Areas of the Southeast Pacific

1989 Quito Ecuador T g Treaties, IGOs

Protocol for the Implementation of the Alpine Convention in the Field of Mountain Forests

1996 T g Treaties, IGOs

Protocol for the Implementation of the Alpine Convention in the Field of Nature Protection and Landscape Conservation

1994 T g Treaties, IGOs

Protocol for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea Against Pollution from Land-based Sources

LBS protocol 1980 T g Treaties, IGOs

Protocol for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea Against Pollution from Land-based Sources and Activities

1996 T g Treaties, IGOs

Protocol for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea Against Pollution Resulting from Exploration and Exploitation of the Continental Shelf and the Seabed and its Subsoil

1994 Athens Greece T g Treaties, IGOs

Protocol for the Protection of the Southeast Pacific Against Pollution from Land-based Sources

1983 Quito Ecuador T g Treaties, IGOs

Protocol of 1978 Relating to the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974

1978 London UK T g Treaties, IGOs

Protocol of 1988 Relating to the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea

SOLAS PROT 1988 1988 London UK T g Treaties, IGOs

Protocol of 2010 to Amend the International Convention of Liability and Compensation for Damage in Connection with the Carriage of Hazardous and Noxious Substances by Sea

HNS PROT 2010 2010 London UK T g Treaties, IGOs

Protocol of Amendment to the European Convention for the Protection of Animals Kept for Farming Purposes

1992 Strasbourg France T g Treaties, IGOs

Protocol of Amendment to the European Convention for the Protection of Vertebrate Animals Used for Experimental and other Scientific Purposes

1998 Strasbourg France T g Treaties, IGOs

Protocol on Civil Liability and Compensation for Damage Caused by the Transboundary Effects of Industrial Accidents on Transboundary Waters

2003 T g IGOs

Protocol on Cooperation in Combating Pollution of the Black Sea Marine Environment by Oil and other Harmful Substances in Emergency Situations

1992 Istanbul Turkey T g Treaties, IGOs

Protocol on Protection of the Black Sea Marine Environment Against Pollution from Land-based Sources

1992 Istanbul Turkey T g Treaties, IGOs

Protocol on Strategic Environmental Assessment

SEA 2003 Geneva Switzerland T g Treaties, IGOs

Protocol on the Prevention, Reduction and Control of Land-based Sources and Activities

1999 T g Treaties, IGOs

Protocol on the Protection of the Black Sea Marine Environment Against Pollution by Dumping

1992 Istanbul Turkey T g Treaties, IGOs

Protocol on Wildlife Conservation and Law Enforcement

1999 T g Treaties, IGOs

Protocol Relating to the Karagatch Territory and the Islands of Imbros and Tenedos

1923 T g Treaties, IGOs

Protocol to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-level Ozone

1999 T g Treaties, IGOs

Protocol to Amend the Convention on Damage Caused by Foreign Aircraft to Third Parties on the Surface

1978 Montréal QC Canada T g Treaties, IGOs

Protocol to Amend the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat

1982 Paris France T g Treaties, UNESCO Bodies, IGOs

Protocol to Amend the International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage, 1984

1984 London UK T g Treaties, IGOs

Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage

1997 T g Treaties, IGOs

Protocol to the Antarctic Treaty on Environmental Protection

1991 T g Treaties, IGOs

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