Global Civil Society & the UN Sustainable Development Goals

Goal 15: Sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, halt and reverse land degradation, halt biodiversity loss

Life on Land


Forests cover 30.7 per cent of the Earth’s surface and, in addition to providing food security and shelter, they are key to combating climate change, protecting biodiversity and the homes of the indigenous population. By protecting forests, we will also be able to strengthen natural resource management and increase land productivity.

At the current time, thirteen million hectares of forests are being lost every year while the persistent degradation of drylands has led to the desertification of 3.6 billion hectares. Even though up to 15% of land is currently under protection, biodiversity is still at risk. Deforestation and desertification – caused by human activities and climate change – pose major challenges to sustainable development and have affected the lives and livelihoods of millions of people in the fight against poverty.

Efforts are being made to manage forests and combat desertification. There are two international agreements being implemented currently that promote the use of resources in an equitable way. Financial investments in support of biodiversity are also being provided.

Name Acronym Founded City HQ Country/Territory HQ Type I Type II Type III

Convention for the Protection on the Marine Environment for the North-East Atlantic

OSPAR Convention 1992 London UK T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention for the Protection, Management and Development of the Marine and Coastal Environment of the Eastern African Region

Nairobi Convention 1985 Mahé Seychelles T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters

Århus Convention 1998 Geneva Switzerland T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention on Biological Diversity

Biodiversity convention 1992 Montréal QC Canada T g United Nations Bodies, Treaties, European Union Bodies, IGOs

Convention on Civil Liability for Damage Caused During Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road, Rail and Inland Navigation Vessels

CRTD 1989 T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention on Civil Liability for Damage Resulting from Activities Dangerous to the Environment

1993 Strasbourg France T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage Resulting from Exploration for and Exploitation of Seabed Mineral Resources

1977 T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention on Conservation of Nature in the South Pacific

1976 T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention on Damage Caused by Foreign Aircraft to Third Parties on the Surface

1952 Montréal QC Canada T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment

1990 T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context

Espoo Convention 1991 T g United Nations Bodies, Treaties, IGOs

Convention on fisheries and the conservation of living marine resources in the Black Sea

1993 J gp Treaties, IGOs

Convention on Fishing and Conservation of the Living Resources in the Baltic Sea and the Belts

Gdansk convention 1973 T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention on Fishing and Conservation of the Living Resources of the High Seas

1958 T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora

CITES 1973 Geneva Switzerland T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention on Nature Protection and Wild Life Preservation in the Western Hemisphere

1940 T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention on Protection of the Environment through Criminal Law

1998 Strasbourg France T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage

1997 T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention on the Conservation and Management of Fishery Resources in the South-East Atlantic Ocean

2001 T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention on the Conservation and Management of High Seas Fishery Resources in the South Pacific Ocean

2009 T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention on the Conservation and Management of Highly Migratory Fish Stocks in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean

Pacific tuna convention 2000 T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention on the Conservation and Management of Pollock in the Central Bering Sea

1994 T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources

CCAMLR 1980 Hobart Australia T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats

Bern convention 1979 Strasbourg France T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals

Bonn Convention 1979 Bonn Germany T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention on the Conservation of the Living Resources of the Southeast Atlantic

1969 Rome Italy T g FAO Bodies, Treaties, IGOs

Convention on the International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects

1972 T g United Nations Bodies, Treaties, IGOs

Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution from Land-based Sources

Paris Convention 1974 T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques

ENMOD Convention 1976 T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological - Biological - and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction

1972 T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction

CWC 1992 The Hague Netherlands T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-personnel Mines and on Their Destruction

Ottawa Convention 1997 T g United Nations Bodies, Treaties, IGOs

Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions

2005 Paris France T g Treaties, UNESCO Bodies, IGOs

Convention on the Protection of the Environment between Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden

1974 T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area

Helsinki Convention, 1974 1974 Helsinki Finland T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area, 1992

Helsinki Convention, 1992 1992 Helsinki Finland T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area, 1999

Helsinki Convention, 1999 1999 Helsinki Finland T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat

Ramsar convention 1971 Paris France T g Treaties, UNESCO Bodies, IGOs

Convention Relative to the Preservation of Fauna and Flora in Their Natural State

1933 T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention Respecting Measures for the Preservation and Protection Fur Seals in the North Pacific Ocean

1911 T g Treaties, IGOs

Convention Respecting the Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers and Persons in War on Land, 1901

1901 T g Treaties, Human Rights Organizations, IGOs

Convention Respecting the Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers and Persons in War on Land, 1907

1907 T g Treaties, Human Rights Organizations, IGOs

Convention to Ban the Importation into Forum Island Countries of Hazardous Wastes and Radioactive Wastes and to Control the Transboundary Movement and Management of Hazardous Wastes within the South Pacific

Waigani convention 1995 T g Treaties, IGOs

Cooperation and Development Network

CDN 2002 Belgrade Serbia F

Cooperazione Internazionale

COOPI 1962 Milan Italy G Humanitarian Organizations

Coordinating Body for the Indigenous Organizations of the Amazon Basin

1984 Quito Ecuador F Human Rights Organizations

Coral Guardian

2012 Limours France G

Coral Restoration Foundation

CRF Key Largo FL USA G f Foundations

Council for a Livable World

CLW 1962 Washington DC USA G

Council for Environmentally Friendly Aviation

CEFA Lightwater UK E y International Federations

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