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Reference is a relationship between objects in which one object designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, another object. The first object in this relation is said to refer to the second object. It is called a name for the second object. The second object, the one to which the first object refers, is called the referent of the first object. A name is usually a phrase or expression, or some other symbolic representation. Its referent may be anything – a material object, a person, an event, an activity, or an abstract concept.

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Organizations relating to Reference

International Society for Music Information Retrieval / Est. 2000
European Association for Cognitive Ergonomics / Est. 1987
European Association for Lexicography / Leiden, Netherlands / Est. 1983
International Association of Music Information Centres / Brussels, Belgium / Est. 1958
Asia-Pacific Signal and Information Processing Association / Kowloon, Hong Kong / Est. 2009
Chinese and Oriental Languages Information Processing Society / Singapore, Singapore / Est. 1988
Scientific Information Centre of Interstate Coordination Water Commission of Central Asia / Tashkent, Uzbekistan / Est. 1993
Organisation régionale pour les pays d'Afrique du Nord et du Proche-Orient / Alexandria, Egypt / Est. 1996
Regional Energy Resources Information Center / Pathum Thani, Thailand / Est. 1978
Information Centre for Bilingual and Plurilingual Education / Aosta, Italy / Est. 1972
European Network of National Information Centres on Academic Recognition and Mobility / Strasbourg, France / Est. 1980
United Nations Information Centres / New York NY, USA
International Information Centre for Terminology / Vienna, Austria / Est. 1971
International Association for the Study of Attention and Performance / Leiden, Netherlands / Est. 1976
Regional Disaster Information Center for Latin America and the Caribbean / Est. 1990
International Tsunami Information Center / Honolulu HI, USA / Est. 1965
International Software Benchmarking Standards Group / Melbourne VIC, Australia / Est. 1994
International Information Centre for Balkan Studies / Sofia, Bulgaria / Est. 1976
Southern African Online User Group / Pretoria, South Africa
Islamic Chamber Research and Information Center / Teheran, Iran Islamic Rep / Est. 2003
International Regions Benchmarking Consortium / Seattle WA, USA / Est. 2008
National Academic Recognition Information Centres / Brussels, Belgium / Est. 1984
AFRINIC / Ebene, Mauritius
Network of Reference Laboratories for Monitoring of Emerging Environmental Pollutants / Verneuil-en-Halatte, France / Est. 2005
Africa Freedom of Information Centre / Kampala, Uganda / Est. 2006
Bank Information Center / Washington DC, USA / Est. 1987
Mine Action Information Center / Harrisonburg VA, USA / Est. 1996
Population Reference Bureau / Washington DC, USA / Est. 1929
Electronic Privacy Information Center / Washington DC, USA / Est. 1994
US Global Change Research Information Office / Washington DC, USA / Est. 1990
European Roma Information Office / Brussels, Belgium / Est. 2003
G8 Information Centre / Toronto ON, Canada
IP Justice / San Francisco CA, USA
Centre d'information textile - habillement / Brussels, Belgium / Est. 1981
Verification Research, Training and Information Centre / London, UK / Est. 1986
IP Multimedia Subsystems Forum / Lone Tree CO, USA / Est. 1999
Research and Information Center for Asian Studies / Tokyo, Japan / Est. 1966
Studie- en Informatiecentrum voor Vredes- en Ontwikkelingsproblematie / Ghent, Belgium
Asia Pacific Human Rights Information Center / Osaka, Japan / Est. 1994
Committee on Research Materials on Southeast Asia / Athens OH, USA / Est. 1967
International Catholic Organizations Information Center / New York NY, USA / Est. 1946
Asian-Pacific Network Information Centre / Brisbane QLD, Australia
European Reference Centre for First Aid Education / Paris, France / Est. 1996
Association for Population / Family Planning Libraries and Information Centers - International / Research Triangle Park NC, USA / Est. 1968
Asian Urban Information Center of Kobe / Kobe, Japan / Est. 1989
Rainforest Information Centre / Elands NSW, Australia
Canadian Information Centre for International Credentials / Toronto ON, Canada / Est. 1990
Oceania Sport Information Centre / Suva, Fiji / Est. 1997
Centro de Informação Europeia Jacques Delors / Lisbon, Portugal / Est. 1994
Dictionary Society of North America / Brooklyn NY, USA / Est. 1975

View all profiles (314 total) in the Yearbook of International Organizations

World Problems relating to Reference

From the Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential

Godless States
Outdated school materials
Indifference to suffering

Action Strategies relating to Reference

From the Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential

Registering professionals
Compiling directory of organizations
Compiling directory
Developing networked documentation services in social sciences
Maintaining futures library
Compiling directory of endangered species
Maintaining library
Producing directory on sustainable development
Registering environmental professionals
Compiling directory of urban research
Benchmarking computer simulation codes
Compiling renewable energy information
Processing data
Developing ortho-photography landbases
Increasing computer-based retrieval systems to cope with growth of scientific literature
Undertaking international benchmarking
Preparing comprehensive catalogues of water resource information at different sources
Establishing clearing houses for environmentally sound technology
Using grey literature
Creating world encyclopaedia
Offering online encyclopedia
Enabling access to primary sources of information
Benchmarking company performance
Capturing archival materials using digital imaging

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