International Criminal Court (ICC)
Cour pénale internationale (CPI)
Corte Penal Internacional
1 Jul 2002. Initially proposed 1948, when the E-XE0223 - International Law Commission (ILC) was requested by the A-XA3375 - United Nations (UN) to study the possibility of setting up such a court. Two draft statutes for such a Court were developed by the United Nations in 1951 and 1953, and much international dialogue has ensued, work having been carried out by International Law Commission in particular. Work was suspended during the 'Cold War' but resumed, 1989, following a suggestion at the 44th General Assembly of the United Nations. A further draft statute, drawn up by the ILC and published in 1992, was submitted to the 48th and 49th General Assemblies in 1993 and 1994, without agreement being reached. Draft statute prepared by a UN Ad Hoc committee, U-XK1205 - Preparatory Committee on the Establishment of an International Criminal Court, following review of the ILC draft statute was submitted to the United Nations Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Establishment of an International Criminal Court, 15 Jun to 17 Jul 1998, Rome (Italy), and adopted by 120 of the 148 nations represented at the Conference. The Statute is referred to as Rome Statute -- Statut de la CPI and includes both crimes covered by international treaties and crimes recognized under international or national law. It particularly refers to T-XT4824 - Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Genocide Convention) and T-XT4999 - Geneva Convention on Torture. ICC was formally established after 60 ratifications of the Rome Statute on 1 Jul 2002. Also previously referred to as Cour criminelle internationale (CCI). T-XT0282 - Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Criminal Court (APIC) was adopted Sep 2002.
Based on the model of universal human rights and affirming that the most serious crimes of concern to the international community as a whole must not go unpunished and that their effective prosecution must be ensured by taking measures at the national level and by enhancing international cooperation, provide an international permanent mechanism to hold individuals accountable for genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes.
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Comprises 4 organs: Presidency; Chambers; Office of the Prosecutor; Registry. Court comprises 18 Judges, each from a different country and with a mandate of 9 years, a Prosecutor (Argentina) with a mandate of 9 years and a Registrar with a mandate of 5 years. The Assembly of States Parties acts as the legislative body of the Court. The Court is seated in The Hague (Netherlands).
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UN Sustainable Development Goals **
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** UN SDGs are linked to the subject classification.
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