Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean
Organisme pour l'interdiction des armes nucléaires en Amérique latine et dans les Caraïbes
Organismo para la Proscripción de las Armas Nucleares en la América Latina y el Caribe (OPANAL)
Agência para a Proscrição de Armas Nucleares na América Latina e no Caribe
Established 2 Sep 1969, Tlatelolco (Mexico), following depositing of the 11th ratification of T-XT6703 - Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (Treaty of Tlatelolco), 25 Apr 1969, and earlier preparatory meetings: Preliminary Meeting on Denuclearization of Latin America (REUPRAL); Preparatory Commission for the Denuclearization of Latin America (COPREDAL); Preliminary Meeting of OPANAL (REOPANAL).
Original title: Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America -- Organisme pour l'interdiction des armes nucléaires en Amérique latine -- Organismo para la Proscripción de las Armas Nucleares en la América Latina -- Agência para a Proscrição de Armas Nucleares na América Latina. Present title adopted by 9th General Conference, 1985, Mexico City (Mexico).
The Treaty was open for signature by: (a) all the Latin American republics; (b) all other sovereign States situated in their entirety south of latitude 35 degrees north in the Western hemisphere; and all such States which become sovereign, when they have been admitted by the General Conference. In accordance with Article 28 of the Treaty, it enters into force among the States that have ratified it as soon as: (a) all the Latin American Republics have deposited the instruments of ratification; (b) all extra continental States have signed and ratified both Additional Protocols, and (c) Safeguards Agreements are concluded with IAEA by all ratifiers; unless the right to waive these requirements is declared by the ratifier State. On fulfillment of requirements of article 28, paragraph 1, the zone of application will become that area situated in the Western hemisphere within the following limits (except the continental part of the territory of the United States of America and its territorial waters): from a point located at 35 degrees North latitude, 75 degrees West longitude, directly southward to a point at 30 degrees North latitude, 75 degrees West longitude; from there directly eastward to a point at 30 degrees North latitude, 50 degrees West longitude; from there, along a loxodromic line to a point at 5 degrees North latitude, 20 degrees West longitude; from there, directly southward to a point at 60 degrees South latitude, 20 degrees West longitude; from there, directly westward to a point at 60 degrees South latitude, 115 degrees West longitude; from there, directly northward to a point at 0 degree latitude, 115 degrees West longitude; from there, along a loxodromic line to a point at 35 degrees North latitude, 150 degrees West longitude; from there, directly eastward to a point at 35 degrees North latitude 75 degrees West longitude. A number of States have waived Article 28 and currently apply the Treaty within their own territorial limits.
Additional Protocol I has been signed and ratified by France, the Netherlands, United Kingdom, United States. Additional Protocol II has been signed and ratified by China, France, Russia (undertaking obligations of the former USSR), United Kingdom, United States. The following amendments have been made to the Treaty: 1. to amend the legal denomination of the Treaty, giving it its current full title; 2. to make possible the entry to the System of Tlatelolco countries previously impeded from doing so; 3. to reassure confidentiality of industrial secrets by requesting the International Atomic Energy Agency to carry out special inspections referred to under the Treaty.
Contribute towards ending the armaments race, especially in the field of nuclear weapons, and towards strengthening a world at peace, based on the sovereign equality of States, mutual respect and good neighbourliness. Promote the total prohibition of the use and manufacture of nuclear weapons and weapons of mass destruction of every type. Assure the principle of an acceptable balance of mutual responsibilities and duties for the nuclear and non-nuclear powers. Strengthen the peace and security of the hemisphere, and make imperative that the legal prohibition of nuclear war should be strictly observed in practice if the survival of civilization and of mankind itself is to be assured. Proclaim that nuclear weapons constitute, through the persistence of the radioactivity they release, an attack on the integrity of the human species and ultimately may even render the whole earth uninhabitable, that general and complete disarmament under effective international control is a vital matter which all the peoples of the world equally demand to assure that nuclear energy should be used in the region exclusively for peaceful purposes and that the Latin American countries should use their right to the greatest and most equitable possible access to this energy in order to expedient the economic and social development of their people.
Ensure compliance with the obligations of the Treaty, be responsible for the electing of periodic or extraordinary consultations among Member States on matters relating to the purposes, measures and procedures set forth in the Treaty and to the supervision of compliance with the obligations arising from the Treaty of Tlatelolco, signed in 1967; ensure the absence of nuclear weapons in the Zone of application set forth in the Treaty; contribute to the movement against proliferation of nuclear weapons; promote general and complete disarmament; prevent the testing, use, manufacture, production or acquisition by any means whatsoever of any nuclear weapons, by the Parties themselves directly or indirectly, on behalf of any one else or in any other way; prevent the receipt, storage, installation, deployment and any form of possession of any nuclear weapons, directly or indirectly, by the Parties themselves, by any one on their behalf or in any other way; refrain from engaging, encouraging or authorizing, directly or indirectly, or in any way participating in the testing, use, manufacture, production, possession or control of any nuclear weapons.
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General Conference (meeting every 2 year in regular sessions), is the supreme organ of the Agency and consists of all Contracting Parties. Council (meeting every 2 months in regular sessions) consists of 5 Member States, taking due account of equitable geographic distribution. Secretariat General, headed by Secretary General (Chief Administrative Officer). Committee on Contributions, Administrative and Budgetary Matters consists of 5 Member States.
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