Resources → Coal
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock, formed as rock strata called coal seams. Coal is mostly carbon with variable amounts of other elements; chiefly hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen. Coal is formed when dead plant matter decays into peat and is converted into coal by the heat and pressure of deep burial over millions of years. Vast deposits of coal originate in former wetlands—called coal forests—that covered much of the Earth's tropical land areas during the late Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian) and Permian times.
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Organizations relating to Coal
World Mining Congress / Katowice, Poland / Est. 1958
European Petrochemical Luncheon International Association / Brasschaat, Belgium / Est. 1981
Mine Action Information Center / Harrisonburg VA, USA / Est. 1996
European Association of Mining Industries, Metal Ores and Industrial Minerals / Brussels, Belgium / Est. 1996
Worldwide Coal Combustion Products Network / Aurora CO, USA / Est. 1998
Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-personnel Mines and on Their Destruction / Est. 1997
Iberoamerican Association of Geological and Mining Surveys / Madrid, Spain / Est. 1993
International Bureau of Strata Mechanics / Katowice, Poland / Est. 1958
Association of Europe's Coalfield Regions / Lievin, France / Est. 1989
Eastern African Power, Mining and Telecoms Industry Convention
Agreement on Products within the Province of the European Coal and Steel Community
ASEAN Federation of Mining Associations / Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia / Est. 1984
Convention Concerning the Minimum Age for Admission to Employment Underground in Mines / Geneva, Switzerland / Est. 1965
Convention Concerning Medical Examination of Young Persons for Fitness for Employment Underground in Mines / Geneva, Switzerland / Est. 1965
Publish What You Pay Coalition / London, UK
American Coal Ash Association / Farmington Hills MI, USA / Est. 1968
International Mine Water Association / Wendelstein, Germany / Est. 1979
International Council on Mining and Metals / London, UK / Est. 2001
Institute of Quarrying / Nottingham, UK / Est. 1917
Latin American Mining Monitoring Programme / Bromley, UK / Est. 1998
European Coal Combustion Products Association / Essen, Germany / Est. 1990
Mines Advisory Group / Manchester, UK / Est. 1991
International Society for Rock Mechanics / Lisbon, Portugal / Est. 1962
Comité d'aide aux calaminois du Tiers-Monde / La Calamine, Belgium / Est. 1978
Arab Industrial Development and Mining Organization / Rabat, Morocco
World Problems relating to CoalFrom the Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential
Environmental hazards of empolderment of wetlands
Destruction of wetland environments
Long-term shortage of coal
Environmental hazards from coal conversion plants
Environmental hazards of coal energy
Environmental impacts of coal mining
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