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Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock, formed as rock strata called coal seams. Coal is mostly carbon with variable amounts of other elements; chiefly hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen. Coal is formed when dead plant matter decays into peat and is converted into coal by the heat and pressure of deep burial over millions of years. Vast deposits of coal originates in former wetlands—called coal forests—that covered much of the Earth's tropical land areas during the late Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian) and Permian times.

From Wikipedia

Organizations relating to Coal

World Mining Congress / Katowice, Poland / Est. 1958
European Petrochemical Luncheon International Association / Brasschaat, Belgium / Est. 1981
Mine Action Information Center / Harrisonburg VA, USA / Est. 1996
European Association of Mining Industries, Metal Ores and Industrial Minerals / Brussels, Belgium / Est. 1996
Stichting Europese Christelijke Mijnwerkers / Est. 1997
Worldwide Coal Combustion Products Network / Aurora CO, USA / Est. 1998
African Organization of Mines, Metal, Energie, Chemical and Allied Trade Unions / Est. 1979
Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-personnel Mines and on Their Destruction / Est. 1997
Pan American Institute of Mining Engineering and Geology / Est. 1942
Central African Mineral Resources Development Centre / Est. 1981
Iberoamerican Association of Geological and Mining Surveys / Madrid, Spain / Est. 1993
International Bureau of Strata Mechanics / Katowice, Poland / Est. 1958
Association of Europe's Coalfield Regions / Lievin, France / Est. 1989
Southeast Asia Tin Research and Development Centre / Est. 1977
Eastern African Power, Mining and Telecoms Industry Convention
Agreement on Products within the Province of the European Coal and Steel Community
International Federation of Mining and Energy Executives / Est. 1951
ASEAN Federation of Mining Associations / Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia / Est. 1984
Convention Concerning the Minimum Age for Admission to Employment Underground in Mines / Geneva, Switzerland / Est. 1965
Convention Concerning Medical Examination of Young Persons for Fitness for Employment Underground in Mines / Geneva, Switzerland / Est. 1965
European Study Committee for Revaluation and Chemical Valorization of European Coal
Publish What You Pay Coalition / London, UK
American Coal Ash Association / Farmington Hills MI, USA / Est. 1968
International Mine Water Association / Wendelstein, Germany / Est. 1979
International Council on Mining and Metals / London, UK / Est. 2001

View all profiles (36 total) in the Yearbook of International Organizations

World Problems relating to Coal

From the Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential

Environmental hazards of coal energy
Coal-tar poisoning
Destruction of wetland environments
Threatened species of Charitospiza eucosma
Environmental impacts of coal mining
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as pollutants
Underutilization of peat as an energy source
Environmental hazards of empolderment of wetlands
Threatened moss-lichen wetland habitats
Environmental hazards from coal conversion plants
Instability of trade in coal, coke and briquettes
Instability of trade in mineral tar and crude chemicals derived from coal, petroleum and natural gas
Shortage of coal-derived tar and crude chemicals
Petroleum and coal products manufacture underdevelopment
Coal fly-ash
Coal mining instability
Long-term shortage of coal
Underground coal fires

Action Strategies relating to Coal

From the Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential

Harnessing solid fuels
Developing clean coal technology
Educating public health impact of domestic use of biomass and coal
Using peat as energy source
Developing coal and coke industry
Using coal
Reducing methane emissions from wetlands
Studying peat
Improving empolderment of peat land

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