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In thermodynamics, heat is energy in transfer to or from a thermodynamic system, by mechanisms other than thermodynamic work or transfer of matter. The mechanisms include conduction, through direct contact of immobile bodies, or through a wall or barrier that is impermeable to matter; or radiation between separated bodies; or isochoric mechanical work done by the surroundings on the system of interest; or Joule heating by an electric current driven through the system of interest by an external system; or a combination of these. When there is a suitable path between two systems with different temperatures, heat transfer occurs necessarily, immediately, and spontaneously from the hotter to the colder system. Thermal conduction occurs by the stochastic (random) motion of microscopic particles. In contrast, thermodynamic work is defined by mechanisms that act macroscopically and directly on the system's whole-body state variables; for example, change of the system's volume through a piston's motion with externally measurable force; or change of the system's internal electric polarization through an externally measurable change in electric field. The definition of heat transfer does not require that the process be in any sense smooth. For example, a bolt of lightning may transfer heat to a body.

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Organizations relating to Heat

IIED América-Latina / Buenos Aires, Argentina / Est. 1988
Center for Global Change and Governance / Est. 1995
International Association of Refrigerated Warehouses / Alexandria VA, USA / Est. 1891
Global Climate Forum / Berlin, Germany / Est. 2001
Programme for Theology and Cultures in Asia / Hualien, Taiwan / Est. 1987
European Society for Immunodeficiencies / Geneva, Switzerland / Est. 1994
Missionary Sisters of the Holy Ghost / Paris, France / Est. 1921
European Sleep Research Society / Regensburg, Germany / Est. 1972
Oblates of Saint Benedict / Est. 1871
Falun Dafa / New York NY, USA
UNANIMA International / New York NY, USA / Est. 2002
International Grooving and Grinding Association / Coxsackie NY, USA / Est. 1972
Congrégation de Notre-Dame / Montréal QC, Canada / Est. 1698
European Association of Air Heater Manufacturers / Cologne, Germany / Est. 1995
International Medical Equipment Collaborative / North Andover MA, USA / Est. 1995
International Committee on Measurements and Instrumentation / Kowloon, Hong Kong / Est. 1993
WELMEC - European Cooperation in Legal Metrology / Delft, Netherlands / Est. 1990
Arrangement Concerning Consultations Prior to the Installation in the Vicinity of the Frontiers of Permanent Stores of Explosive Substances for Civil Use / Est. 1950
BIPAVER - European Retread Manufacturers Association / Leiden, Netherlands / Est. 1954
International Conference on Plasma Surface Interactions in Controlled Fusion Devices / Oak Ridge TN, USA
Salesian Pontifical University / Rome, Italy / Est. 1940
International Confederation for Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry / Est. 1968
EUROSLAG / Duisburg, Germany / Est. 2000
Africa Humanitarian Action / Addis Ababa, Ethiopia / Est. 1994
Australasian Fluids and Thermal Engineering Society / Barton, Australia

View all profiles (58 total) in the Yearbook of International Organizations

World Problems relating to Heat

From the Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential

Global warming
Detrimental changes in ocean characteristics
Environmental pollution by nuclear reactors
Inadequate protection from cold weather
Threatened polar desert habitats
Thermal pollution
Excessive climatic heat
Heat stress at work
Cold torture
Cold as an occupational hazard
Inadequate waste incineration
Numbness towards others
Sunlight inhibition by nuclear warfare soot

Action Strategies relating to Heat

From the Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential

Incinerating wastes
Improving acclimatization of buildings
Using cogeneration of electricity and heat
Using solar power to heat water
Monitoring thermal pollution
Procuring cryopreservation
Distributing heat
Advancing thermal sciences
Promoting contact among thermal scientists
Conserving available home heat
Reducing thermal pollution
Improving protection from cold weather
Managing hot weather violence
Recovering heat from natural ventilation systems
Treating waste by incineration
Linking thermal analysts
Developing cryogenic storage for endangered plant species
Giving priority to cryogenic storage
Adapting to heatwave conditions
Reducing heat loss in buildings
Using high-performance windows
Transporting goods under controlled temperature
Providing heating in cold countries

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