United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM)

Mission de vérification des Nations Unies en Angola

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History

20 Dec 1988, New York NY (USA), by resolution 626 (1988) within United Nations Security Council (UNSC) of the United Nations (UN), as part of United Nations Peace-keeping Operations (DOMP), within United Nations System, at the request of the Governments of Angola and Cuba. Arrangements entered into force after a tripartite agreement between Angola, Cuba and South Africa, and a bilateral agreement between Angola and Cuba were signed, 22 Dec 1988, New York NY, at UN HQ. Initial mandate was for 31 months. Withdrawal of Cuban troops was completed by 25 May 1991, over a month before the scheduled date. Meanwhile, on 17 May 1991, the Government of Angola requested the Secretary-General to ensure the participation of the United Nations in verifying the implementation of the Peace Accords for Angola, and consequently to prolong UNAVEM's presence. Following the Secretary-General's recommendation, the Security Council adopted, 30 May 1991, its resolution 696 (1991) entrusting a new mandate to UNAVEM, thereafter UNAVEM II, and establishing the Mission for a period of 17 months, until the general elections were held in Angola. Peace Accords were signed, 31 May 1991, and the Secretary-General took steps to implement the new mandate.

On 24 Mar 1992, the Security Council, by its resolution 747 (1992), decided to enlarge UNAVEM II's mandate to include election observation in Angola. UNAVEM electoral observers monitored the campaign, contributed to civic education programmes and provided information on UNAVEM II's role. As regards its mandate in military matters, UNAVEM II continued to carry out its verification functions at the assembly areas up to and after the announced disbandment of the two former armies of FAPLA (Government) and FALA (UNITA) on 27 Sep 1992, while United Nations police observers continued their verification of police neutrality. However, little progress was made in developing a representative national police force and soon after the elections, UNITA withdrew its cooperation. Despite the statement, 1 Oct 1992, of the Secretary-General's Special Representative that the great majority of the registered voters had cast their ballots in peaceful and orderly conditions, complaints were raised by UNITA and some other parties of widespread, massive and systematic irregularities and fraud. An ad hoc Commission was sent by the Security Council, 11-14 Oct 1992, to support implementation of the Peace Accords but the political and military situation in the country continued to deteriorate and the Security Council adopted, 30 Oct 1992, resolution 785 (1992) extending the existing mandate of UNAVEM II until 30 Nov 1992. Efforts in the peace process continued despite hostilities and subsequent resolutions extended UNAVEM II's mandate for periods of 3 months until 31 Jan 1995. The Lusaka Protocol, signed 20 Nov 1994, as well as covering re-establishment of the cease-fire and withdrawal of military forces, includes the United Nations mandate and the role of observers of the Peace Accords.

A new operation, UNAVEM III, was authorized 8 Feb 1995, initially for 6 months. Its mandate, based on implementation of the Peace Accords, the Lusaka Protocol and relevant Security Council resolutions, expired 30 June 1997. Succeeded by United Nations Observer Mission in Angola (MONUA).

Aims

/of UNAVEM III/: Verify the extension of state administration, monitoring national reconciliation throughout the country; verify and monitor the cease-fire, disengagement of forces and completion of formation of the national army (FAA); verify the neutrality of the national police force, the disarming of civilians and quartering of police units; support and verify the entire electoral process; coordinate humanitarian activities directly related to the peace process, including demobilization of troops and their reintegration into civilian life.

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Activities

UNAVEM II was deployed in 5 locations - Luanda (Angola), Lubango, Namibia, Benguela and Sumbe - with military and police observers patrolling these areas, liaising with the respective local authorities, supporting humanitarian assistance operations and conducting investigations. Regional Headquarters in Lubango and, from 27 Nov 1994, in Huambo, Luena, Menogue, Saurimo and Uige.

Financing

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Relations with Inter-Governmental Organizations

Relations with 2 inter-governmental organizations.
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Relations with Non-Governmental Organizations

Relations with 1 non-governmental organizations.
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Members

Members in 36 countries
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Type I Classification

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Type II Classification

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Subjects *

  • Defence
    • Cease-Fire, Surrender
  • Law
    • Arbitration
  • International Relations
    • United Nations
    • Peacekeeping
  • Peace
    • Humanitarian
  • Authenticity
    • Authenticity

UN Sustainable Development Goals **

GOAL 16: Peace and Justice Strong InstitutionsGOAL 17: Partnerships to achieve the Goal

UIA Org ID

F0067

Last News Received

25. Mar 1997
* Subject classification is derived from the organization names and aims.
** UN SDGs are linked to the subject classification.

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