A number of bodies which may be called "international" can be usefully characterized by peculiarities in their geographic orientation or distribution of membership. These may be grouped as follows:
4.5.1 Geographically focused: This group is distinguished by mention of a specific, and generally small, geographic feature in the name of the organization.
188.8.131.52 Region: In this case a region is named, generally an area where three frontiers meet.
- European Group for the Ardennes and the Eifel
- Liptako-Gourma Region Integrated Development Authority
184.108.40.206 Lake: This is similar to the previous case.
- Lake Chad Basin Commission
- International Commission for the Protection of Lake Constance
220.127.116.11 River: There are a number of examples of organizations concerned with rivers flowing between two or more countries.
- Danube Commission
- Central Commission for the Navigation of the Rhine
- Organization for the Development of the Senegal River
18.104.22.168 Place: A number of bodies are concerned with specifically named locations
- International Auschwitz Committee
- International Campaign for the Establishment of the Nubia Museum in Aswan
- International Association for the Lambarene Hospital
- International Foundation of the High Altitute Research Station of Jungfraujoch and Gornergrat
- International Association for Fundamental Research on the Furnace at Ougre
- Nordic House in Reykjavik
Of special interest are those associated with schools for children of international officials:
- United Nations International School
- Scandinavian Folk High School in Geneva
Some of these may be established by a special intergovernmental agreement:
- Board of Governors of European Schools
22.214.171.124 Territory: In some cases a whole territory is named.
- Committee for the Control of the International Zone of Tangier
- Charles Darwin Foundation for the Galapagos Islands
- Allied Commission for Austria
- Agudath Israel World Organization
A special case occurs where there is some intent to inhibit activity in the territory, such as by boycott.
- (Arab) Bureau for Boycotting Israel
- Consultative Group Cooperation Committee (for the embargo on export of strategic goods to the Eastern bloc)
- International Defence and Aid Fund for Southern Africa
4.5.2 Geographical displaced: This group includes those bodies which have some unusual combination of geographic features.
- Association of American Chambers of Commerce in Latin America
- World Association of Estonians
- World Federation of Hungarian Jews
- European Branch Association of Commonwealth Language and Literature Studies (with secretariat in Denmark)
This group also includes exile organizations.
- Assembly of Captive European Nations
- Christian Democratic Union of Central Europe
- Russian Nobility Union
4.5.3 Regional organizations with extra-regional membership: Some bodies whose names appear to limit the distribution of membership in fact have members from other regions with equal voting rights.
- Asian Development Bank
- Scandinavian Society for Plant Physiology
4.5.4 Secretariat-location organizations: In those countries with a long tradition of international activity an umbrella type of body may be created.
- Federation of International Associations established in Belgium
- Federation of Semi-Official and Private International Institutions established in Geneva
- Union of International Non-governmental Organizations established in France
Not to be forgotten in this connection are the personnel associations described under 126.96.36.199 above.
4.5.5 Geographically fragmented membership: A number of bodies, which may be termed "regional", in fact have a dispersed membership.
- Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
- Coordinating Bureau for Non-aligned Countries
Other examples, which have not yet given rise to permanent international bodies, may be found associated with land-locked countries and arid, tropical or mountainous regions.
4.5.6 Place-named organizations: This group is distinguished by the presence of a city name in the title or acronym of the organization. The city may be that of the secretariat and regular meeting point:
- The Hague Conference on Private International Law
- Rehovot Conference on Science in the Advancement of New States
or the place of signature of a relevant treaty (which may also be the secretariat of place of the first meeting):
- Paris Union - International Union for the Protection of Industrial Property
- Berne Union - International Union for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Property
- Warsaw Treaty Organization
or the place of the first meeting (which may also be the location of the secretariat):
- Colombo Plan for Cooperative Economic and Social Development in Asia and the Pacific
- Pugwash Conference on Science and World Affairs
- The Club of Rome
4.5.7 Internationally-operating national organizations: There are many organizations which are primarily national but which nevertheless are mainly concerned with operational programmes (usually aid or relief) in other countries.
- American Council of Voluntary Agencies for Foreign Service
- Cooperative American Relief Everywhere
Such bodies may in fact acquire consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council on a par with conventional INGOs. An older variation on this form is the missionary society, although increasingly such societies dispatch missionaries from several base countries.
- Council for World Mission
- Combonian Missionaries of the Heart of Jesus
4.5.8 Internationally-focused national organizations: Whilst usually without operational programmes in other countries, there is a range of national organizations which is primarily interested in international relations and world affairs. The preoccupation is generally academic but may include an attempt to educate a selected group (eg policy makers) or the public.
- International Peace Research Institute, Oslo
- Pakistan Institute of International Affairs
4.5.9 Nationally-supported international organizations: Some otherwise quite conventional international bodies are mainly supported (eg funding, services or office facilities) by one national body, possibly a government agency.
- Stockholm International Peace Research Institute
- International Children's Centre
- Confrérie de la chaîne des rotisseurs
4.5.10 Minimally-international organizations: There is a tendency for some national organizations to attempt to stimulate their development into international bodies by adopting a name which created the impression that such a development has been accomplished. This may be for prestige reasons but it may also be based on an honest but very simple, interpretation of the meaning of "international". There is a whole range of organizations based in the United States, possibly with a small proportion of membership in other countries (often Canada or Mexico) which are named "International...". This is especially true of labour unions and trade associations.
- International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Unions
- International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers
- International Oxygen Manufacturers Association
It is useful to note that federated states may legitimately give rise to a wide range of "inter-governmental" organizations at the federal level with names having a form indistinguishable from that of conventional intergovernmental bodies.
4.5.11 Bilateral and similar bodies: The well-established bilateral form of organization is not usually considered as belonging to the general range of international organizations. There is however a development of this form in which one of the partners is a continental grouping but in which each member is of equal status.
- Italian-Latin American Institute
- Association Europe-Japan
- Federation of European American Organizations
The last example is in fact a federation of bilateral organizations. These are of special interest in the case of inter-governmental bodies, which may not exclude extension of membership to other countries:
- Senegambia Confederation
- Mano River Union