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In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public is the totality of such groupings. This is a different concept to the sociological concept of the Öffentlichkeit or public sphere. The concept of a public has also been defined in political science, psychology, marketing, and advertising. In public relations and communication science, it is one of the more ambiguous concepts in the field. Although it has definitions in the theory of the field that have been formulated from the early 20th century onwards, it has suffered in more recent years from being blurred, as a result of conflation of the idea of a public with the notions of audience, market segment, community, constituency, and stakeholder.

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Organizations relating to Public

Japan Association of International Cooperation for Oral Health
Biblica / Colorado Springs CO, USA / Est. 1809
International Clinical Epidemiology Network - Asia / Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Caribbean Electric Utility Services Corporation / Castries, St Lucia / Est. 1988
Association des professionnels de santé en coopération / Paris, France / Est. 1992
Europe Association of Test Publishers
Animal Production and Health Commission for Asia and the Pacific / Bangkok, Thailand / Est. 1975
European Medical Association on Smoking and Health / Meyrin, Switzerland / Est. 1986
African Population and Health Research Center / Nairobi, Kenya / Est. 1995
Medico International - Aid in Developing Countries / Est. 1968
International Institute for Rural and Environmental Health, Bratislava / Bratislava, Slovakia / Est. 1995
Asociación Latinoamericana y del Caribe de Educación en Salud Pública / Est. 1974
Central and Eastern European Media Centre Foundation / Warsaw, Poland / Est. 1990
Association of Universities Entrusted to the Society of Jesus in Latin-America / Caracas, Venezuela / Est. 1985
Consortium for International Pacific Education and Communication Experiments by Satellite / Honolulu HI, USA / Est. 1973
Health Action Information Network / Quezon City, Philippines / Est. 1985
European Centre for Judges and Lawyers / Luxembourg, Luxembourg / Est. 1992
Public Concern Foundation / New York NY, USA / Est. 1975
International Society of Critical Health Psychology / Est. 2001
PATH / Seattle WA, USA / Est. 1977
Health Action International / Amsterdam, Netherlands / Est. 1981
Association for an Integral Health and Citizenship of Latin America and the Caribbean / Quito, Ecuador
Agreement Concerning Subscriptions to Newspapers and Periodicals, 1952 / Est. 1952
Latin American Centre for the Study of Violence and Health \'Jorge Careli\' / Rio de Janeiro, Brazil / Est. 1989
International Health Regulations, 1969 / Est. 1969

View all profiles (197 total) in the Yearbook of International Organizations

World Problems relating to Public

From the Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential

Human flatulence in public
External debt crisis
Burden of servicing foreign public debt
Disappearance of common land
Government budget deficits
Inadequate transport infrastructure
Excessive governmental spending
Unethical practices in the public sector
Social hardships of economic reform
Bribery of public officials
Abuse of government power
Nationalization of foreign investments
Endangered public reserves
Protectionism in public accounting and auditing services
Falsification of public records
Destruction of historic documents and public archives
Limited verbal skills
Lack of access to public archives
Covert intelligence agency operations
Inefficiency of state-controlled enterprises
Inadequate use of referenda
Scientific ignorance
Inadequate water system infrastructure
Discrimination against children

Action Strategies relating to Public

From the Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential

Providing public transportation
Improving public utilities in urban areas
Increasing public participation in environmental policy discussions
Studying public policy
Providing public health information
Facilitating public domain
Expanding public awareness of environmental health hazards
Providing public health services
Providing public access to environmental information
Expanding sustainable development education
Preserving public conscience
Coordinating government policy-making
Exposing immoral public policy
Increasing public participation in trade policy-making
Fostering popular participation in development
Forming public - private partnerships
Controlling public land use
Honouring special citizen contribution
Managing public services
Improving cooperation between regional and global organizations
Providing integrated pollution control
Outsourcing government regulatory responsibilities
Communicating environmental news on the internet
Empowering legal base
Challenging legitimacy of public authority

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