Second Level Subjects
Climatology or climate science is the scientific study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time. This modern field of study is regarded as a branch of the atmospheric sciences and a subfield of physical geography, which is one of the Earth sciences. Climatology now includes aspects of oceanography and biogeochemistry. Basic knowledge of climate can be used within shorter term weather forecasting using analog techniques such as the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO), the North Atlantic oscillation (NAO), the Northern Annular Mode (NAM) which is also known as the Arctic oscillation (AO), the Northern Pacific (NP) Index, the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO), and the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO). Climate models are used for a variety of purposes from study of the dynamics of the weather and climate system to projections of future climate. Weather is known as the condition of the atmosphere over a period of time, while climate has to do with the atmospheric condition over an extended to indefinite period of time.
Organizations relating to Climatology
Environment Northern Seas Foundation / Est. 1992
Center for Global Change and Governance / Est. 1995
Organization for Flora Neotropica / Est. 1964
Global Climate Forum / Est. 2001
Barents Euro-Arctic Council / Est. 1993
Antarctic Treaty / Est. 1959
UNANIMA International / Est. 2002
Climate Action Network North Africa
ESF Network on Quaternary Mammalian Faunas / Est. 1991
Association internationale Zaïre-Hydro-Sahel
International Alliance of the Indigenous Tribal Peoples of the Tropical Forests / Est. 1992
International Society for Tropical Crop Research and Development / Est. 1990
Institut de recherche en biologie et ecologie tropical / Est. 1987
International Centre of Climate and Environmental Sciences / Est. 1991
ICOMOS International Polar Heritage Committee / Est. 2000
Scientific Council for Africa South of the Sahara / Est. 1950
International Arid Lands Consortium / Est. 1989
Oilwatch / Est. 1996
Sahara Resource Network / Est. 2001
Association internationale de climatologie / Est. 1988
Avenir des peuples de la forêt tropicale
International Symposium on Arctic Geology
Jacob Blaustein Institute for Desert Research / Est. 1974
African Centre of Meteorological Applications for Development / Est. 1987
Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals / Est. 1972
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