Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria and All Africa
Patriarcat grec-orthodoxe d'Alexandrie et de toute l'Afrique
According to the tradition the Church of Alexandria was founded by St Mark the apostle and evangelist. By the 4th century it had already extended across Egypt and Libya and had almost one hundred dioceses. The Church fathers Athanasios and Cyril fought for the preservation of Orthodox faith at the Councils of Nicea, 325, and Ephesus, 431. After the Council of Chalcedon, 451, there was a division, and part of the Church joined the Monophysites. Thus two patriarchates arose - the Egyptian, which is known as Coptic, and the Byzantine, which, since the capture of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453, has called itself Greek Orthodox. After the Turkish conquest of Egypt in 1517 the Greek Orthodox patriarchs were forced temporarily to seek refuge in Constantinople. During the Reformation in the West, the Alexandrian patriarchate was administered by the Cretan patriarchs Sylvester, Meletios I Pegas, Cyril Lukaris, Gerasimos I (1567-1630). The last of them, Metrophanes Kritopoulos, was elected patriarch in 1630. The present Pope and Patriarch of Alexandria and All Africa is His Beatitude THEDOROS II.
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