21 July 1889, Paris (France), as an international association of workers' parties and as a successor to International Working Men's Association, 1864 (AIT), also known as the 'First International'. The organization was split by divergent policies in response to the 1914-1918 War. A postwar reconstruction attempt at a congress in Geneva (Switzerland) was unsuccessful. The initiative was superseded by the International Working Union of Socialist Parties, also referred to as 'Vienna Union' or 'Second-and-a-Half International', the Communist International (Comintern), also known as the 'Third International', the International Socialist Office, known also as 'International Socialist Bureau (ISB)' and the Labour and Socialist International (LSI), set up 21 May 1923, Hamburg (Germany). Historically instrumental in setting up Socialist International (SI), 1951, Frankfurt-Main (Germany FR), following the work of International Socialist Advisory Committee (COMISCO) (set up 1947), which was seen as re-establishing the LSI.Available with paid subscription only.
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