Preliminary study of 4th Edition (1994-5)
A Kannan, Theosophy Science Centre (of the Theosophical Society, Adyar)
Towards a Framework of Concepts and Ideas for Better Understanding
The following Notes have been prepared while going through Volumes 2 (4th Edition) and 3 (1st Edition) of the Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential (Edited by Union of International Associations, Rue Washington 40, B-1050 Brussels Belgium, who graciously invited suggestions and improvements). We have selected the ideas and concepts amenable to holistic perspective, in our view, and explained the sequence of the Framework by referring to the Encyclopedia (hereafter cited by volume and hardcopy page number -- with hyperlinks to the equivalent web pages containing more elaborate comments).
Vol: 2/359-60. The study of SRI International (Stanford Research Institute) provides the guidelines for a framework such as the one we are considering :
Further our aim, at the Theosophical Society, is not to arrive at a conclusion but to work with holistic human concern for world welfare so that the human and other resources in a holistic sense can be garnered for this purpose.
In Vol: 2/354, the UN University's Human and Social Development Programme (1983) is quoted as:
In the chapter Significance: Cultural and, educational biases (Vol: 2/355) the development of personality through human values is referred to and the non-material dimensions of development are stated by Aurelio Peccei (1975, Director of the Club of Rome) as:
Towards the complete man (UNESCO International Commission on the Development of Education, 1972) reports:
Transformation of Man Vol2:/357 (Lewis Mumford, 1962) is quoted as:
Ervin Laszlo (1989) is quoted as:
Sanford Nevitt, The Goal of Individual Development (in G Kenny Smith (Ed) 1945 Twentyfive Years 1970. San Francisco, CA.Jossey Bass, pp. 131 - 146) is quoted as:
At Vol: 2/353 it is stated that:
At Vol: 2/359-60: The Center for the Study of Social Policy, Stanford Research Institute prepared a policy research report (1974) which states:
Some of these points are incorporated in our Framework.
At Vol: 2/374 the UNDP Human Development Report (1990) states:
At Vol: 2/376 under Initiative, enterprise and human development, we note the statement:
At Vol: 2/377 the concluding paragraphs,
At Vol: 2/380, under Transcending frozen learning cycles, Ken Wilbur in the Spectrum of Consciousness (p. 11, 1982) states:
Under Ecosystems of societal learning, MacLean's work on brain evolution (1973) is commented on that:
At Vol: 2/381, under Experiencing the implicate order, David Bohm (1988, p. 206) is cited as:
At Vol: 2/382, under Value crises in a life cycle, Erik Erikson's work is referred to in Childhood and Society (1963) as:
Under Appropriate responses and saving virtues it is stated that:
In the Buddhist tradition, the equivalents might be considered to be the component elements of the Eightfold Noble Path:
- Right outlook (otherwise translated as "Right Perception')
- Right speech
- Right acts
- Right livelihood
- Right endeavour
- Right mindfulness
- Right rapture of concentration
At Vol: 2/383, under Development of insight in learning cycles, it is concluded that:
As an interim understanding derived from the above citations, we can infer that there is value implied in a new learning environment into which we can have an insight.
At Vol: 2/422-423, references are made to "Unified science", "Unity of Science", "Integrative Education", "Unity of Knowledge", "Synthenis of human sciences", "Interdisciplinary synthesis" "Integrative studies, "Comprehensive thinking", "Specialists and Generalists" and "Complexity and Chaos studies", which are all currently pursued research and scholarly study projects that can provide, through different channels, the pertinent and, necessary insight into the new learning environment.
At Vol: 2/423, the concluding paragraphs on the problem of locating interdisciplinary material for the synthesis and integration of knowledge are quite interesting.
At Vol: 2/431, the item Possible future improvement is significant to considering the new learning environment
At Vol: 2/540-542, the key chapter, Discontinuity: polarity entrapment should be highlighted in a fitting manner so that the insights that are being made available can be thematically discussed, put into practice as a education endeavour and the new initiatives emanating along these lines put to good use in the service of humanity. Such a research-oriented scheme can be styled as "value education"
For example, at Vol: 2/540, it is stated:
The discussions under "Peace and non-violence", "Consensus", "Equality", "Freedom", "Justice", "Development", "Democracy", "Knowledge" and other topics are very topical and insightful. Particularly under "Education" it is worth taking note of the key understanding:
The concluding sentence at Vol: 2/542 is worth noting:
At Vol: 2/569, it is stated:
The section on Human Values and Wisdom has four sub-sections VC, VD, VP and VT (and needs one more Section VE: Value Education) in order to fulfill the need according to the assessment at Vol: 2/633 that:
Such a link could be through appropriate learning. When we re-read this in the light of the emphasis noted by us as at Vol: 2/540-542, in the key chapter Discontinuity: polarity entrapment, the link seems to be Value Education.
At Vol: 2/807, under Recognition of importance of value change, the need for a deeper foundation for value apprehension and involvement seems to be implied. This can be brought out more elaborately. The illustrations could be the generation gap and the gender gap or polarity. Under Necessity for re-examination of value systems and Desperate search for common values, the direction for this deeper apprehension and involvement of values has been indicated but it can stand more intensive exploration and examination.
At Vol: 2/808, it is stated that:
At Vol: 2/809 mention has been made of important value-oriented research and study projects. But a more detailed discussion about the progress and outcome of these projects would find a place under "VE: Value Education". The statement under Ethical values for the 21st Century is of significance:
At Vol: 2/810, under Consensus on fundamental values, it is stated:
If we put the same idea differently, there is no adequate reason for withholding from a learning citizen that he should be honest, he should respect all life and so on. By holding to lack of consesus the some citizen resorts to malificent inspirations. Taking note of the analysts at Vol: 2/811-830, a diagramatic representation of value classes is presented which goes to show that all aspects of value apprehension are taken care of.
Another significant phase of presentation is on "universal set of values" which tries to embody the significance of the human person as a value symbol, followed by important issues of "conflicting systemsof values" and "challenge to comprehension".
At page Vol: 2/831 it is stated from the Study of the Club of Rome for UNESCO (1987):
At Vol: 2/831 it is stated:
The Director General of UNESCO, René Maheu has noted: In particular, the most basic human rights are more frequently invoked as a weapon of attack or defence against some party… rather than recognized and practiced as the royal road to a positive relationship between individuals and groups in an objective form of" fraternity.
At Vol: 2/832, under Local vs Global, it is stated:
A truly universal system of values is thus better modelled by a tensional integrity structure which offers distinct niches for competing value systems, whilst ensuring a dynamic relationship between them. It is brought into existence by using the tensions between competing value perspectives ---Using the energy of opposing perspectives to engender a larger structure.
The concluding chapter in Vol: 2/834 deals with Insights: Wisdom and requisite variety. Human potential is focussed through wisdom, ethical values, education and insights, These are treated as challenges of communication and rightly so because the human being is both the source of problems as well as the instrument of finding the solutions thereto. This focus on wisdom, ethical values, education and insights should not be considered as intriguing because all of them constitute the upward direction of the two-way communication system.which the human mind is recognized to be.
At Vol: 2/834, The Club of Rome investigation for UNESCO, In Search of Wisdom for the World: the role of values in education (1987), concludes:
Nor is the objective equally obvious to everyone, With the modern world as it is, the search for wisdom will not necessarily strike people as a priority issue and many will be sceptical and ironical. Nevertheless all are invited to lay the foundations for a new humanism that will enable the peoples of tomorrow to live together harmoniously,Under "Nobel laureates" it is stated:
Some of these achievements, such as for example, the Peace Prize are of widespread and deep interest to people at large. The understanding and experience of the laureates could be documented, studied and fitted into a pilot project of Peace achievement which could be further elaborated for greater benefit. The contributions of "Super intelligence", "Sources of wisdom: expertise and experience" and others, are mentioned and briefly commented on. Typical of such comment is at Vol: 2/835:
This only brings into relief the necessity to utilize such persons, their life and work for the edification and upliftment of society in a more sustained and deep-rooted manner than has been attempted so far.
In Vol: 3 the following entries relating education and values are of interest:
- SB0904: Advocating culture of tolerance
- SC 0185: Ensuring healthy environment
- SC 0186 Cultivating moral capacity -- Broadening moral understanding ---. Expanding moral perceptions --- Offering adequate moral development ---Providing sufficient moral development. Context: To live in society is to accept the moral obligation of at least being conscious that society comprises other human beings with rights and desires that must be acknowledged if not accommodated. The growth end development of moral values is not quantifiable in the same way as productivity of a national economy but these values are necessary for the maintenance of social sub-structure.
- BC2427: Teaching social methodologies
- SC4194: Maintaning ethical standards -- Promoting ethical code of behaviour -- Upholding basic ethical principles
- SC8231: Developing comprehensive values -- Identifying universal values. Context: Values are the foundation of commitment and determine an individual's or collective's world view. They give direction, purpose and meaning to life. The destiny of both individuals and society is shaped and created with the values by which they live, Values chosen, or adopted by inheritances assign worth or importance to those aspects of life to which they relate. There may be instances where a value choice is a natter of personal opinion, but a number of values are fundamental to the well being of humanity as a whole. Such values transcend the particularities of humanity's richly diverse cultural, philosophical and social heritage and form the bedrock on which to build international cooperation. Such values are universal, not just in their application to all of humanity, but also in their application to all fields of human activity.
- SD2463: Encouraging broader educational goals
- SC8497: Upholding nuclear families
- SD2543: Developing world ethic for sustainable living
- SD3070: Disseminating information on human values
- SD5224: Instituting adolescent peer education
- SD7482: Providing for social principles of behaviour
- SD8248: Embodying community values
- SE0377: Re-emphasizing religion
- SE5686: Eliminating immorality
- SE7411: Demanding fundamental social values be honoured
- SE9605: Creating global responsibility
- SG5142: Systematizing social ethics
- SJ2426: Protecting against vulnerability of universal principles
- SJ2885: Matching principles with practice
Of additional interest are the entries under:
- SC2259: Teaching integrative education
- SC4695 Reorienting education towards sustained development
- SD2463: Encouraging broader educational goals
- SC4698: Teaching comprehensive life education
- SD4371: Relating education to life
- SE4197: Improving community capacity to assess and meet environmental educational needs
- SE4108: Expanding programmes for continuing adult education in sustainable development
- SE4274: Educational training programmes including sustainable development company
- SE5216: Developing an inter-governmental / NGO network for achieving global environmental educational goals
- SG9065: Providing environmental education
- SF3738: Valuing education by parents.
Of fundamental importance, as stated in SD0285 (Developing global ethic -- Creating global ethic -- Breaking down barriers to a global ethic --Creating basic consensus with regard to universal binding values, unalterable standards and personal principles):
At Vol: 3/849 it is stated:
At Vol: 3/856, it is mentioned that:
At Vol: 3/858:
At Vol: 3/859:
At Vol: 3/861: Strategy-less names, Nameless strategies and Further work on strategy terminology are described.
At Vol: 3/863, it is stated:
At Vol: 3/866: The resulting strategy sections are as follows:
- Section SB: Used for broad cross-category strategies which tend to be prominent on the agendas of international organizations
- Section SC: Used for major of a specific nature section
- Section SD: Used for detailed strategies
- Section SE: Used for emanations of other strategies
- Section SF: Used for "fuzzy" exceptional and unusual strategies
- Section SJ: ... Section SK ... Section SP…
- Section ST: Used for strategy types
Pursuing the relationships to the Values Section, following are of interest.
At Vol: 3/877, under Strategic ecosystem: network strategy, it is stated:
Value correctness... T he strategic problem is to ensure that all possible resources bring themselves to bear on the perceived problems, but without introducing at the highest level any element of organizational imperialism…or in its absence, what might be called conceptual imperialism….The challenge is to speed up some of the dynamics of the social system so that organizational and value inadequacies become more rapidly evident in order that more appropriate substitutes may be evolved. This is a learning process essential at every point in the social system.
At Vol: 3/878, under Maturing the social system by developing strategic proficiency, it is stated:
At Vol: 3/882-3, criticism is offered under the headings Wisdom limitation, Universal values limitation and Spiritual insight limitation. The main cautionary comment we would like to offer is that wisdom is veiled not because the sources of wisdom are concealed with intention but the level of consciousness to receive the wisdom effectively is not fully stabilized and established. The concept of universal values as evolved gradationally through local and personal, global and developmental, onto universal and spiritual, have to be understood in the holistic perspective. The dimension of unification, integration and being bound in unitary consciousness should qualify "universal values" apart from their applicability in widespread space and time conditions. Hence wisdom and universal values comprehended in their depth significance is an opening to spiritual life, Wherever "spiritual" is used the connotation of partiality, unseen and hidden must be perceived holistically as identification with Truth also. Particularly the excerpts referred to are "The report is remarkable ... by whom"; "The ethical manifestation of the unitary...ethical mobilization world-wide"; "In total contrast to many ... is often unnamed"; and "Despite the fact ... grasp subtleties appropriately".
At Vol: 3/884-886, Hoping for acceptance of a global ethic and Sustainable human development are to be noted.
At Vol: 3/890>, the report (Global 2000 Revisited: What shall we do?) accepts that the challenge facing humanity is "fundamentally spiritual in nature" and poses challenging questions of the religious traditions. Under "The new model" it is stated:
At Vol: 3/891:
Some "questions for spiritual leaders" are posed.
At Vol: 3/899, Grass roots initiatives is stated:
At Vol: 3/904, under "Mind change in a learning system:
At Vol: 3/906, seven principles of action fundamental to strategic thinking implicit in the "game of go" are outlined of which:
It is worthwhile noting that "the global and the long-term take priority over the local and the short-term". An important phase of understanding is reached in dealing with "learning society" and cognate subjects at Vol: 3/956-57. At page 956:
- A vital step forward is to switch from interpreting actions in terms of significance for development to their significance as learning. It is strange that development is conventionally a process applied to, or undergone by, "others" -- never by the "developers" despite their well-documented limitations. It is acknowledged that good teachers succeed partly because their attitude is one of learning, with, and from, the student -- to the point that "facilitator" is more appropriate than "teacher". The advocated change can then be presented by:
- From developers plus developees = developing society
- To:facilitator-learners plus learners = learning society
- Extending the concept of learning. For this change of interpretation to be other than cosmetic, the concept of "learning" must (a) extend far beyond conventional forms of book learning and training; (b) be promoted as an activity of all social institutions; (c) extend beyond individual learning (in a learning society) to group and societal (d) be accepted as intrinsic to all activities of all social institutions (not just "educational" programmes, but living in learning).
Rector Soedjatmoko, UN University, has emphasized this point in relation to the "learning nation':
Societal learning: A Club of Rome report extends the notion to "humanity". … The conventional, often unarticulated conception of how societies learn…. adjusting to and consuming the discoveries and knowledge produced in centres of expertise. The unavoidable consequence of this view of societal learning is elitism, technocracy and paternalism. What is omitted is the fact that meaning and values -- decisive for learning -- are products of society at large, not of specialized centres. In a learning society, however, it is "learning" which is being accumulated, where this can best be partially defined in terms of accumulation, of recognized patterns. ... Learning is an ordered dynamic response to discontinuity .. The pattern which connects (all living creatures) is a meta-pattern. It is a pattern of patterns that meta-pattern which defines the vast generalization that, indeed, it is patterns which connect.
- The capacity of a nation - not just of its government, but of society as a whole -- to adjust to rapidly changing techno-economic, socio-cultural and political changes, on a scale which makes it possible to speak of transformation, very much depends on its collective capacity to generate, to ingest, to reach out for, and to utilize, a vast amount of new and relevant information. The capacity for relative and innovative response to changing conditions and new challenges, I would like to call the learning capacity of a nations. This capacity is obviously not limited to the cognitive level but includes the attitudinal, institutional and organizational levels of society as well, It therefore resides not only in a nation's formal educational system, not only in the government bureaucracy, in parliament and the political parties, but also in the business community, in the media, the professional organizations, the trade unions, the cooperatives and the various kinds of voluntary associations within the society at large.
At Vol: 3/971, under Learning and risk it is stated:
At Vol: 3/972, W. I. Thompson (1978, p. 127) is quoted:
Framework of dynamic, inter-related concepts, ideas and experiences embodying holistic, human concern for world welfare
N.B. This Framework has been compiled keeping in view the Intended uses of the Encyclopedia (Vol: 3/28), especially the passage:
Hence a broad-based holistic perspective is adopted to bring together seven clusters of the Framework. The numbering is done for easy reference. The sequence of the flow diagram is explained in the text.
Topic (1): Chaos; Complexity; The Universe, human being and the world as Potential Sources; Freedom in a spiritual context
Topic (2): Human Problem; Human Mind an a dual acting force different from Nature; Human Development; Transformation of Man
Topic (3): Cosmic Order, Implicate and Explicate Order - Experiencing; Rhythm; Cycles.
Topic (4): Holomovement; Ethics; Self-realization; Global ethics; Ecoethics; Polarity and tension among value systems; Local and global values; Human valuesTopic (5): Universals; Laws; The One Law; Universal Values;
Topic (6): Realization of universals and the evolution of consciousness as a process, responsibility and values; Evolving together with the world of animals, plants and the earth; Knowledge; The new learning environment - Learning by cycles of losing and winning ; Learning system, society and nation -- Extending learning beyond Conventional ways; Patterns and meta-patterns; Wisdom, Insights; Strategies.
Topic (7): Individual consciousness in a state of spiritual freedom and inquiry; Opposing human polarity to find a resonant blend of harmony, in the universal; Response to a universal cause of unity of truth, wisdom-permeated knowledge and loving action for holistic world welfare; Value education in the new learning environment; Initiatives and "self-devised and self-initiated" endeavours. Networking.
Topic (1) of the Framework includes chaos which is dealt with as VD0749 in the Encyclopedia. The meaning of disorder may not bring out fully the holistic perception which is necessary. The order which is the substratum of universe and man is not lost but is only obscured or veiled from the perceiving mind so that when re-viewed from the holistic perspective the potentiality of order comes into relief.
Complexity is dealt with under VD0849. The complex personality of man can be correlated to "complexity" as postulated in the universe by modern thinkers. Human problems are thus relevant to be considered when the predicament of men is raised to the level of human scale and related to the complexity of the universe.
Vol: 2/822-830 contains six articles on "Complexity", four of which relate to "Values", Reference to chaos is as follows (Vol: 2/822):
At Vol: 2/357, it is pointed out that complexity and wholeness can result in high level of development of personality. Such a person is open to new experience and capable of further learning. He fits into that aspect of the Framework (see Topic 7) in which the individual is a resonant blend of consciousness harmoniously vibrating between the universal and human dimensions, The healthy balance between subjectivity and objectivity is also the outcome of this. It has been said: "The best corrective to error is an honest and open-minded examination, of all facts, subjective and objective."
The emergence of human potentiality is possible when the wholeness of man is free in the spiritual sense of a consciousness that in not entrapped in problems created by the human mind. J.Krishnamurti has discoursed at length on "Freedom from the known"; "Freedom first and last". HM1198 of the Encyclopedia refers to "Spirit of the people" and states:
The comprehensive human scale understanding of development is indicated in several references of the Encyclopedia (Vol: 2/354-355). The human potential, although referred to, is of its fullest flowering, the scope of action is limited to "the formation of human capabilities such as improved health, knowledge and skills -- and the use people make of their required capabilities…" The scope of human scale development should envisage the potential in a universal and cosmic sense to be channeled through the human (see Topic (2) of Framework).
At Vol: 2/355, it is stated:
Discussing topics such as "Development of personality through human values", "Non-material dimensions of development", "Towards the complete man" (Vol: 2/355), education and cultural development are seen as essential and is a movement of wholeness of man and the universe in the process in which all are engaged. (See also Vol: 3/972 under Process of Synthesis)
The Harvard Graduate School of Education Project on Human Potential has brought out books that "provide a remarkable collection of material on the question of potential as seen in terms of human intellectual potentials, philosophical aspects of the concept of potential and the role of cultural factors in the progress of human development. The second volume is a deliberate effort to show the roots of the concept of" potential in genuine aspects of human nature (Vol: 2/355).
Topic (2) of the Framework. includes "Transformation of man" which "on a scale not achieved previously is necessary for creating a unified world and is possible only with the concept of whole man." Ervin Laszlo emphasizes the human being as causing the problem. This also envisages a perspective view of the human being as the generator of values by transcending his inner limits to contain the human situation in peace and harmony (Vol: 2/355)
This Framework considers human problems in the light of world and human potential (See Vol: 2/834 also). Vol: 2/380 refers to the synthesis of major approaches to consciousness as contributing to the emergence of the new individual envisaged in the Framework (Topic 7). This Framework also envisages the issue of "If man cannot understand how he in part of the problem, he cannot understand the nature of the "answer" required to his condition." The new individual is envisaged to have the ability to live creatively.
The sequential inference can be drawn that the human mind has a dual acting force for good as well as for bad from the understanding that most of the problems, including wars, are born in the minds and so acting for good the mind can be a potential source for peace. However, the mind in Nature, the intelligence responsible for all natural phenomena, their orderliness in functioning etc. is impartial. It neither knows good nor bad. The natural phenomena including earthquakes, flood storms, etc. end up as calamities only with respect to perception by the human mind. The rhythm of nature can be perceived by the human mind as cycles involving destruction, decay and death to which human mind attaches problematic values. Hence it is possible to envisage in this Framework of wholeness a situation of beyond rental concepts and feelings and yet highly intelligent, in which human-worked-out problems do not exist per se. This perspective view is highly concerned to find "answers" to all those who seek them in the sense we are all parts in this world and have our own responsible roles to play. This is how Topic (3) fits in the Framework.
Vol: 2/808 points out that the understanding that no problem is recognisable except, in the light of a value (Topic (4) of Framework). This is explored further as "human values form the driving force in many campaigns…" "Values provide focus through their inspirational value and their perspective potential in creating a more desirable future irrespective of established views'
Vol: 2/811-830 explores at length "The importance of the human person lies in the value of his intersection with the world and "communicaton" with a broad base of values common to the individuals involved" (See also Topic (6) of Framework)
Vol: 2/832 deals with Nature of the requisite dynamic framework, and suggests such a dynamic "interrelation of values" in "Local versus Global". A universal system of values is considered as a dynamic relationship between competing value systems maintaining the tensional integrity structure. From the holistic perspective universal values have on independent base to which local, personal, global and developmental values can be correlated and integration achieved as a process
Topic (4) of Framework: As can be inferred from Vol: 3/882-3, the holistic perspective is essential to perceive the value of wisdom, universality and spirituality because of the different dimension of unitary consciousness and intelligence needed to perceive such cognate values
The item of Framework on the topic of "Polarity and tension among value systems" is elucidated by (Vol: 3/972):
Vol: 3/972 refers to "Process and synthesis" which is cognate to the topic of "holomovement, an explained by "These processes where the unity of opposites manifests… it is the movement of the process itself which constitutes the synthesis.'
While the above reading of the situation may be pertinent to the understanding the "process" of human evolution, still since transformation and wholeness and not merely development and opposites which are only parts, are taken into consideration, the goal and aim of human endeavour should be directed by means of cooperation towards immortality, love and unity.
Topic (5) of Framework is a sequel to the discussion of previous topics. Although we cognize universality as the character of facts spread across the length and breadth of the universe, which also implies across tine and space, there is the inherent dimension of depth and unity implied in "uni-" in all such words and concepts as "universal, "union", "university" and so forth. It also connotes the indivisibility and hence indestructability. It is not suggested here that we should rely only on epistemological derivation of meaning of words. But it can be considered as a pointer of the nature of truth as universal when laws are derived as generalisation and found to be universally relevant. We should also be aware that such universality holds good only till such time as other superseding or complementary laws are not discovered. So the One Law which corresponds to truth in its timeless character also forms an essential feature of this Framework. The values cognate to such universal truth and the One Law become relevant.
The Topic (6) of the Framework comprises those aspects of the individual's work by which he transforms the principles governing the universe and men into a practical realisation in life. Vol: 2/382 envisages that the new individual should be able "to ensure the emergence of an appropriate balance or dynamic between the two value extremes at each stage (of a total of 8 stages)". These are the equivalents of the Buddhist Eightfold Noble Path.
From Vol: 2/383 we can infer that there is value implied in a new learning environment into which we can have an insight. This new learning environment incorporates (Vol: 3/904): a mind change to reveal fundamental insights which are relatively trivial.
The newness of the learning system is characterized by: the ability to interweave the insights already articulated within different parts of the learning system.
Vol: 3/956-7 deals with an important phase of "learning society" which:
Vol: 3/956-7 extends the scope to learning capacity of a nation:
Vol: 3/957 deals with patterns and meta-patterns in the light of the "learning contest':
Vol: 2/422-423, identifies a cluster of subjects which can be considered as a coordinating feedback loop to the Framework especially to the topic of knowledge and learning under item (6). Such subjects as: "Unified science", "Unity in science", "Unity of science"; "Integrative education"; "Integrated education"; "Unity of knowledge", "Synthesis of human sciences"; "Interdisciplinary studies"; "Comprehensive thinking"; and "Specialists and Generalists"; "Complexity and chaos studies". All these are currently pursued as research and scholarly endeavours arid can provide the pertinent and necessary insight in the new learning environment.
Vol: 2/569 under Possibility of other patterns states:
Such a pattern can be associated with wisdom and insight.
Another feedback loop could be associated with Topics 5 and 6 of the Framework. This is referred to in Vol: 2/831 as:
Further, "Basic human rights as the royal road to a positive relationship between individuals and groups In an objective form of fraternity" has been reiterated.
The first 715 pages of Volume 3 of the Encyclopedia was read through to select, some topics and not all, to fit into the holistic view of this Framework. Details could be found under "Notes". Especially the selected value-oriented and education-based strategies (see Topic (6) of Framework) can be considered as Coordinating Frameworks or Feedback loops.
While we are considering the relationships of human beings in the context of evolution of consciousness along with the connected human qualities and values, togetherness in evolution, with the "lower kingdoms" comprising of the animals, plants and the earth has to be deeply considered. Those human qualities need to be evolved along with the intellectual ascendancy that is now so evident, are those of the "heart" of compassion, generosity, and sympathy. These hove be bestowed on the animals, plants and the earth in a manner that is appropriate to their stage of evolution. This arises as a sequel to the principle of eco-ethics of Topic (4) of the Framework.
The insights provided in the chapter Vol: 2/540-542 are valuable to be taken into consideration in the holistic perspective of the Framework. The recognition of fundamental values and principles and the initiatives that can emanate in society and individuals are pointers to Value Education stated in Topic (7) of the Framework. As pointed out already, coordinating the Framework are other concepts and guidelines such as "Peace and non-violence", "Equality"; "Freedom", "Justice", "Development", "Democracy", "Knowledge" and others. The key understanding under "Education" (Vol: 2/540-542) is pointed out as the inaccessibility of quality education and the incidental improvement of the quality in life -- which understanding must lead to "appropriate education for a new generation".
Vol: 2/633 also draws our attention to the appreciation of subtle values, intimate relation to wisdom, and the exploration of a framework the likeof which is outlined herein.
Vol: 2/827 discussed Complexity beyond equilibrium values and suggests "a framework of incompatible perspectives". A valuable lead is provided by the work of Christopher Langton (at the World Resources Institute, Washington, DC) based on insights of Stephen Wolfram. They identified four classes of dynamical systems:
- Class I: Governed by a single point attractor: Doomsday scenario, in which agents or patterns of behaviour rapidly die out.
- Class II: Set of periodic attractors: Relatively predictable pattern of behaviour, but essentially static
- Class III: Governed by strange attractors: Chaotic behaviour which never settles into predictable pattern. No stability. Structures break up as soon as they form.
- Class IV: Emergence of coherent structures that continue to grow, propagate, split, and combine in a complex way.
We will explain the position later in tandem with Class IV.
Vol: 2/807 envisages a foundation for deeper value apprehension and involvement. (Topics (6) and (7) of the Framework).
Vol: 2/809 refers to value-oriented research projects and there is a mention of specificity "to guide curriculum developers, educators and educational administrators through the problem of ethical values" which is of significance to Topic 7 of the Framework
Vol: 2/810-11 deals with the difficulty of coming to grips with values which however does not exclude exploration of "richer patterns of coherence (of fundamental values)".
Vol: 2/834 discusses under Sources of" Wisdom the value of profiting by the life and work of Nobel Think tanks, awardees for international understanding, etc. This has to be explored more intensively.
Vol: 3/849 is relevant to Topic (7) of Framework and notes:
Vol: 3/877 goes into the concert of networking as an emergent phenomenon linking the same to values and is a sequel to the framework of understanding drawing together a number of related concepts and is part of the learning process.
Vol: 3/906 envisages networking as "the game of go" in which "a creative combination of theory, experience and intuition appropriately orients strategic reflection".
The above presentation of Framework can be subject to valid criticism on a number of points. It does not offer a detailed discussion of the various view-points selected for presentation. A discussion is not attempted because we are not analyzing the merits and demerits of the various issues but wish to engage in an exercise as to how far the holistic perspective is conducive to study the various approaches. Secondly, this presentation is not on in-depth study so that the inference and conclusions could lead to some useful initiative and action. Our objective arises from an in-depth understanding that the study of world problems and human potential should not be fragmentary. Rather the implicit goal of human life is to serve humanity and the world in a manner such that the value and purpose of human existence should be holistically realised. This is a concept ingrained in holistic human concern of world welfare. Thus this framework is only conceived as an intellectual aid for "guiding the crestwave of intellectual advancement into spirituality" or in the holistic perspective. Thirdly, these ideas and concepts are only clusters lacking cohesion so that they may not help in encouraging and promoting new initiatives.We have taken this into account while stating the seventh topic of the framework as "the individual consciousness in a state of spiritual freedom and enquiry".
This implies an important assumption that ultimately it is the individual, whether acting separately or collectively, that has the spiritual quality of integrity and it is only when he is allowed the freedom to act in that potential capacity that he can act with holistic responsibility bringing into that task the value of his existence as a value symbol. This is no doubt an in-depth understanding of the human being which distinguishes him in his wholeness of being. Whatever we notice objectively, about his subjective nature or mind as the source of world problems, should be paradoxically resolved in the same subjective nature but decidedly at a deeper level wherein he realizes responsibility and value in their wholeness.
The human being in this perspective is capable of and should respond with the wholeness of his being to the problem situations in the world. It implies that the value of human action is embedded in its wholeness. On any issue if he intensively and discursively engages himself in thinking, arguing, justifying and comes to conclusions that being engaged in tensions generated by the polarity of his actions will lead to a solution or solutions, then that line of action may not guide him in the holistic way. He must employ in tandem his capabilities of feeling and energetic action with his intellectual capabilities. An initiative arising out of fragmentary way of thinking, feeling and energetic action is bound to fade away but become alive when the circumstances that the individual chooses is more conducive to holistic initiative. Such holistic initiatives can arise in response to a universal cause of unity of truth, wisdom-permeated knowledge and loving action. These are all values of fundamental and universal significance that can be imbibed in a new learning environment and the individual can be facilitated towards taking up this holistic initiative. The freedom of the individual to think, feel and be energetically active is an integral part of that learning.
In this Framework the initiatives of several individuals and groups of individuals working in diverse parts of the world with varying philosophical and cultural backgrounds are sought to be gathered together. Naturally the holistic perspective is important and also the in-depth nature of the new initiative is of significance. It also brings into prominence a web of relationship among those " initiators", an aspect of which is recognised as "net working". This net working in an upcoming activity in many fields of national and international import. The mere awareness of such a web of relationships is not sufficient to make it a living force for world welfare. The initiators in this network can strengthen the underlying relationship along holistic lines if the value of integrity and wholeness of the individual is fully made use of. We would like to refer back to the citation of Sanford Nevitt (Vol: 2/355) for a psychological appraisal of the potentialities of networking.
At Strategic eco-system network strategy (Vol: 3/877) some of the relevant principles are given. Whatever may be the gravity of the problem situation, the important assumption is the consciousness of the individual leading through wisdom-permeated knowledge and loving action for holistic world welfare cannot be broken up into fragments. This is the basic faith in the potential of humanity. It implies humanity can work and serve humanity for its own welfare, all in the holistic sense. Such a conviction can sustain the "net-working". So value education as a separate discipline is not separatist in outlook and approach but is a holistic activity embracing the whole of human nature. The challenge arises when value in accepted an the distinguishing characteristic of human action and what matters is how effectively, skilfully and wisely we utilize this ingrained quality as an educational tool in a broad sense. Further one can be sufficiently inspired to carry on this service to humanity when we try to comprehend the significance of the term "Universal Brotherhood" (universal values sustaining human relationships) is no idle phrase --it is the only the true foundation for universal morality.