United Nations System
Système des Nations Unies
Sistema de las Naciones Unidas
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The relationship between the 6 principal organs - the General Assembly, the Secretariat of the United Nations, E-XE3377 - ECOSOC, F-XF3379 - International Court of Justice (ICJ), E-XE3376 - United Nations Security Council (UNSC) and E-XE3378 - United Nations Trusteeship Council - is covered in the main entry for the A-XA3375 - United Nations (UN) and in the individual descriptions of the organs concerned. However, when considering the United Nations Family as a whole, the term 'United Nation System' generally has two different meanings: the first designating all the organizations, including the 'financial' organizations represented in the Administrative Committee on Coordination (ACC), which brings together the heads of the agencies under the chairmanship of the Secretary-General of the United Nations; the second designating only the non-financial organizations. In actual fact, the System, in the broad sense includes 3 types of global or near-global organizations, with very different functions and types of activities, namely:
(A) Organizations with overall competence, the United Nations itself and some major agencies, which, although theoretically in charge of a particular economic or social sector, have in fact a tendency to deal with all aspects of economic and social problems. It is possible to include in this group:
- The United Nations, which alone constitutes a complex system;
- E-XE3381 - UNCTAD;
- - the major operational and humanitarian programmes and organs:
- E-XE3382 - UNDP;
- E-XE4161 - UN Environment;
- E-XE3016 - UNHCR;
- F-XF3380 - UNICEF;
- E-XE6809 - United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat);
- E-XE3387 - United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR);
- H-XF5178 - United Nations International Drug Control Programme (UNDCP);
- F-XF5606 - United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA);
- F-XF2488 - United Nations University (UNU);
- F-XE3543 - World Food Programme (WFP);
- E-XE2639 - International Trade Centre (ITC);
- about 30 juridically independent funds, institutes, centres or councils.
(B) The 'functional' or 'technical' organizations, intended essentially to establish rules and ensure co-operation among national services in fields of common interest such as postal services, telecommunications or transport. In this category are:
- B-XB1505 - International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO);
- B-XB1117 - International Maritime Organization (IMO);
- B-XB2622 - International Telecommunication Union (ITU);
- B-XB3408 - Universal Postal Union (UPU);
- B-XB3635 - World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO);
- B-XB3556 - World Meteorological Organization (WMO);
- B-XB1383 - International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA):
- B-XB2745 - World Tourism Organization (UNWTO).
(C) The 'financial' organizations, together referred to as E-XE4376 - Bretton Woods Institutions (BWIs) (indicating the place of the negotiations which led to the establishment of most of them). They use a weighted voting system, do not accept the common rules adopted by all the other agencies for staff management and salaries, and their object is essentially to provide a framework of monetary and trade relations and also to grant development loans. They are:
- F-XF2266 - International Monetary Fund (IMF);
- F-XF6841 - The World Bank Group, comprising:
- - F-XF1393 - International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) (sometimes, inaccurately, referred to as 'World Bank'),
- - B-XB1791 - International Development Association (IDA) (together with IBRD actually comprising the 'World Bank'),
- - F-XF2057 - International Finance Corporation (IFC),
- - F-XF1090 - Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA);
- B-XF2527 - World Trade Organization (WTO), replacing F-XF1721 - International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), which has functions comparable to those of the financial organizations.
(D) Peace-keeping operations (currently active), under F-XF0692 - United Nations Peace-keeping Operations, which comprise:
- F-XF2272 - United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara;
- United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA);
- United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA);
- F-XM2544 - United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH);
- F-XF5668 - United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUSCO);
- E-XJ0989 - African Union/United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID);
- F-XE1538 - United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF);
- F-XE2070 - United Nations Peace-keeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP);
- F-XF7577 - United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL);
- United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA);
- E-XE3802 - UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK);
- H-XJ3555 - United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL);
- United Nations Mission in the Republic of South Sudan (UNMISS);
- F-XE1153 - United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP);
- F-XE1048 - United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO).
Other UN Mission:
- E-XE4634 - United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA);
- Civilian component:
- F-XF5133 - United Nations Police (UNPOL).
'Official Seal, Emblem and Flag of the United Nations'
The official seal and emblem of the United Nations is a map of the world, as seen from the North Pole, surrounded by a wreath of olive leaves. When the General Assembly approved the design in 1946, it also recommended that members should adopt legislation or other appropriate measures to protect the emblem against use not authorized by the Secretary-General. In particular, the General Assembly called for prohibition of the use for commercial purposes of the official seal, emblem, name or initials of the world organization.
The United Nations flag was adopted by the General Assembly in 1947. Its design consists of the official emblem in white, centred on a light blue background. In accordance with Assembly directives, the Secretary-General drew up regulations concerning the dimensions of the flag and, on 19 Dec 1947, issued a Flag Code to govern the use and protect the dignity of the flag. The Code was amended in Nov 1952 to permit display of the flag by organizations and persons desiring to demonstrate their support to the United Nations. Among the matters covered by the Flag Code are the protocol to be followed in display of the flag, its use in specified circumstances and its manufacture and sale. Under one of the provisions of the Code, any violation of the Code may be punished in accordance with the law of the country in which such violation occurs. The text of both Flag Code and the regulations is contained in a pamphlet, entitled 'The United Nations Flag Code and Regulations', issued by the United Nations.
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